Hattusa, Χαττούσα, Άτοσσα, Χαδησία
Ειδικότερα αναφέρεται ως:
- Κύταια στον Σκυλάκειο Περίπλου,
- Κυταία στα Σχόλια στα Αργοναυτικά του Απολλωνίου του Ροδίου,
- Cyta στον Πλίνιο τον Πρεσβύτερο
Χαττούσα και ΚυταίαEdit
- ο αναφερόμενος Αιήτης δεν μπορεί να είναι κάποιος άσημος Κόλχος δυνάστης αλλά ο πανίσχυρος Χετταίος αυτοκράτορας ενώ
- η Αία (= Ηώς = Ανατολή), προφανώς, είναι η τεράστια (για την εποχή της) Χετταϊκή Αυτοκρατορία.
Στα Αργοναυτικά υπάρχει η αναφορά:
- Τοῦ τυφλοῦ Μάντη Φινέα ὀμφή ἐλάλησε:
- «Ὑπέδειξε εἰς τὸν Ἄργο καὶ τοὺς ἀπόγονους τοῦ Φρίξου τὸν δρόμο τῆς ἀπὸ τήν Κυταία Αἶα ἐπιστροφῆς εἰς τὸν Πελασγικὸ Ὀρχομενό".
Hattusa (Ηa-at-tu-ša, 'Khattuša) was the capital of the Χετταϊκή Αυτοκρατορία.
The site is located near the modern-day town and district center of "Boğazkale", formerly named "Boğazköy", της Τουρκίας, at a distance of 90 km from the province seat of "Çorum". The region is set in a loop of the Kızıl River (Marashantiya in Hittite sources and Άλυς in Classical Antiquity) in central Anatolia, about 200 km (125 miles) east of Άγκυρα.
Hattusa was added to the "UNESCO World Heritage" list in 1986.
The landscape surrounding the city included rich agricultural fields, hill lands for pasture, as well as woods. Smaller woods are still found outside the city but in ancient times there were much more. This meant the inhabitants had a great supply for timber when building their houses and other structures. The fields provided the people with a subsistence of wheat, barley and lentils. Linen was also harvested, but their primary source for clothing was wool from sheep. They also hunted deer in the forest, but this was probably only a pleasure by the nobility. The source for meat was domesticated animals. There were several other settlements in the vicinity, such as the rock shrine at Yazılıkaya and the town at Alacahöyük. Since the rivers in the area are too small and unsuitable for major ships, all transport to and from Hattusa had to go by land.
Before 2000 BC a settlement of the apparently indigenous Χατταίοι people was established on sites that had been occupied even earlier. The earliest traces of settlement on the site is from the Sixth Millennium BC.
The center of their trade network was located in Νύσα (Kanesh) = (Neša), the archaeological site known as "Kültepe" near "Kayseri".
Business dealings required record-keeping: the trade network from Ashur introduced writing to Hattusa, in the form of cuneiform.
A carbonized layer in the excavations records the burning and ruin of the city of Hattush around 1700 BC.
The responsible party appears to have been King Anitta from Kushar (a city possibly to be identified with Alişar), who took credit for the act and erected an inscribed curse for good measure: Πρότυπο:Cquote
Only a generation later, a Hittite-speaking king had chosen the site as his residence and capital.
The Hittite Language had been gaining speakers at Hattic's expense for some time. The Hattic "Hattus" now became Hittite "Hattusa", and the king took the name of Αττάσιλος Α' (Hattusili I), the "one from Hattusa."
Hattusili marked the beginning of a non-Hattic-speaking "Hittite" state, and of a royal line of Hittite Great Kings - 27 of whom are now known by name.
After the Ασκάνιοι (Kaskas) arrived to the kingdom's north, they twice attacked the city to the point where the kings had to move the royal seat to another city.
Mursili III returned the seat to Hattusa, where the kings remained until the end of the Hittites.
At its peak, the city covered 1.8 km² and comprised an inner and outer portion, both surrounded by a massive and still visible course of walls erected during the reign of Suppiluliuma I (circa 1375 - 1335 BC).
The inner city covered an area of some 0.8 km² it was occupied by a citadel with large administrative buildings and temples.
To the south lay an outer city of about 1 km², with elaborate gateways decorated with reliefs showing warriors, lions, and sphinxes. Four temples were located here, each set around a porticoed courtyard, together with secular buildings and residential structures. Outside the walls are cemeteries, most of which contain cremation burials.
Modern estimates put the population of the city between 40,000 to 50,000 at the peak. In the early period the inner city housed a third that number. The dwelling houses which were built by timber and mud bricks have vanished from the site leaving only the stone-built-walls of temples and palaces.
The city was destroyed around 1200 BC, as part of the Bronze Age collapse, leading to the collapse of the Hittite empire.
Ernest Chantre opened some trial trenches at the village then called Boğazköy, in 1893-94. Since 1906, the Deutsche Orientgesellschaft has been excavating at Hattusa (with breaks during the two World Wars and the Depression, 1913-31 and 1940-51). Archaeological work is still carried out by the German Archaeological Institute (Deutsches Archäologische Institut). Hugo Winckler and Theodor Makridi Bey conducted the first excavations 1906, 1907 and 1911-13, which were resumed in 1931 under Kurt Bittel, followed by Peter Neve (site director 1963; general director 1978-94). One of the most important discoveries at the site has been the cuneiform royal archives of clay tablets, consisting of official correspondence and contracts, as well as legal codes, procedures for cult ceremony, oracular prophecies and literature of the ancient Near East. One particularly important tablet details the terms of a peace settlement between the Hittites and the Egyptians under Ramesses II, circa 1283 BC. A copy is on display in the United Nations in New York as an example of one of the earliest known international peace treaties.
Although the 30,000 or so clay tablets recovered from Hattusa form the main corpus of Hittite literature, archives have since appeared at other centers in Anatolia, such as Tabigga/Maşat Höyük (in Tokat Province) and at Sapinuwa/Ortaköy. They are now divided between the archaeological museums of Ankara and Istanbul.
- ↑ The Excavations at Hattusha: "A Brief History"
- ↑ " The Excavations at Hattusha - a project of the German Institute of Archaeology": Discovery
- ↑ Jürgen Seeher, "Forty Years in the Capital of the Hittites: Peter Neve Retires from His Position as Director of the Ḫattuša-Boğazköy Excavations" The Biblical Archaeologist 58.2, "Anatolian Archaeology: A Tribute to Peter Neve" (June 1995), pp. 63-67.
- Peter Neve: Hattusa - Stadt der Götter und Tempel. Neue Ausgrabungen in der Hauptstadt der Hethiter. Ph. von Zabern, Mainz 1996. (2. erw. Aufl.) ISBN 3-8053-1478-7
- W. Dörfler u.a.: Untersuchungen zur Kulturgeschichte und Agrarökonomie im Einzugsbereich hethitischer Städte. MDOG Berlin 132, 2000, 367-381. ISSN 0342-118X
- Ομώνυμο άρθρο στην Βικιπαίδεια
- Ομώνυμο άρθρο στην Livepedia
- Excavations at Hattusha: a project of the German Institute of Archaeology
- Hittite version of the Peace treaty with Ramses II of 1283 BC
- Pictures of the old Hittite capital with links to other sites
- UNESCO nomination
Αν και θα βρείτε εξακριβωμένες πληροφορίες
"Οι πληροφορίες αυτές μπορεί πρόσφατα
Πρέπει να λάβετε υπ' όψη ότι
- Μην κάνετε χρήση του περιεχομένου της παρούσας εγκυκλοπαίδειας
αν διαφωνείτε με όσα αναγράφονται σε αυτήν
- Όχι, στις διαφημίσεις που περιέχουν απαράδεκτο περιεχόμενο (άσεμνες εικόνες, ροζ αγγελίες κλπ.)