The following is a list of rulers during the history of Bavaria:
Dukes of BavariaEdit
United Bavaria 548-1253Edit
Around 548 the kings of the Franks placed the border region of Bavaria under the administration of a duke -- possibly Frankish or possibly chosen from amongst the local leading families -- who was supposed to act as a regional governor for the Frankish king. The first duke we know of, and likely the first, was Gariwald, or Garibald I, a member of the powerful Agilolfing family. This was the beginning of a series of Agilolfing dukes that was to last until 788.
- Garibald I, ca. 548-591
- Tassilo I, ca. 591-610, was named rex (king) at his ascension
- Garibald II, ca. 610-630
- Rulers unknown, ca. 630-680
By the time of Duke Theodo I, who died in 716 or 717, the Bavarian duchy had achieved complete independence from the Frankish kings. Theodo's sons divided the duchy, but by 719 the rule had returned to Duke Grimoald.
- Theodo, ca. 680-716
- Theudbert, son of Theodo, Duke in Salzburg ca. 702-719
- Theobald, son of Theodo, Duke of parts of Bavaria ca. 711-719
- Tassilo II, son of Theodo, Duke in Passau ca. 716-719
- Grimoald, son of Theodo, Duke in Freising ca. 716-725, later ruling all of Bavaria
Charles Martel, ruler in fact though not in name of the Frankish realm, reasserted royal supremacy over Bavaria, defeating and killing Duke Grimwald and annexing portions of Bavaria during the rule of Hugbert.
Tassilo III recognized the suzerainty of the Frankish kings Pippin III in 757 and did homage to Charlemagne in 781, and again in 787, while pursued an independent policy. In 788, Charlemagne had Tassilo sentenced to death on a charge of treason. Tassilo, granted pardon, entered a monastery and formally renounced his duchy at Frankfurt in 794.
The Kings (later Emperors) of the Franks now assumed complete control, placing Bavaria under the rule of non-hereditary governors and civil servants. The Emperor Louis the Pious divided control of the Empire among his sons, and the divisions became permanent in the decades following his death in 840. The following Frankish rulers controlled Bavaria as part of their possessions:
Louis gave his son Lothair the kingship of Bavaria in 815:
- Lothair I, 815-817 (under Louis the Pious)
In 817, Lothair was crowned joint Emperor with his father, and the realm was redivided. A younger son of Louis', Louis the German, took control of Bavaria.
- Louis the German, 817-865
Louis the German became king of the eastern third of the Empire in 843. In 864 he gave control of Bavaria to his son Carloman, and died in 876. Louis' two younger sons, Louis and Charles (the latter of whom briefly recovered control of all the Frankish possessions), ruled Bavaria in succession after Carloman.
Carloman's bastard son, Arnulf, rebelled against Charles and took power in eastern Francia shortly before Charles' death. He was succeeded by his son Louis.
Luitpolding Dynasty, 911-947Edit
Luitpold, founder of the Luitpolding dynasty, was not a Duke of Bavaria but a Margrave of Carinthia under the rule of Louis the Child. Frankish power had waned in the region due to Hungarian attacks, allowing the local rulers greater independence. Luitpold's son, Arnulf, claimed the title of Duke (implying full autonomy) in 911, and was recognized as such by the German king, Henry the Fowler, in 920.
The German King Otto I reasserted central authority, banishing Arnulf's son Eberhard and re-granting the title to Berthold, a younger son of Luitpold.
- Berthold 938-947
Bavaria under the German Kings, 947-1180Edit
From Otto I onward until the 12th century, the Kings of Germany repeatedly transferred Bavaria into different hands (including their own), never allowing any one family to establish itself. Bavaria was ruled by a series of short-lasting, mostly unrelated dynasties.
On Berthold's death, Otto gave the duchy to his own brother Henry (I), who was also Arnulf's son-in-law.
Henry's son, also named Henry (II), made war upon his cousin Otto II, and was deprived of his duchy in 976 in favor of his cousin Otto, Duke of Swabia (who now acquired two dukedoms).
- Otto I 976-982 Ottonian
The death of Otto saw a shuffling of crowns. First Bavaria was given to Berthold's son Henry (III), briefly restoring the Luitpolding dynasty.
Henry III then exchanged Bavaria for Carinthia, and Henry II received Bavaria again. His son, Henry IV of Bavaria, was elected King of Germany as Henry II.
- Henry II the Quarrelsome 985-995 Ottonian (restored)
- Ερρίκος Δ' (Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor|Henry IV) 995-1004 Ottonian
King Conrad II of Germany, gave Bavaria to his son Henry (VI), following the death of Henry V in 1026.
In 1042, Henry VI, who had become King of Germany in 1039 as Henry III, granted the duchy to another Henry (VII), Count of Luxemburg, nephew of Henry V.
After Henry VII's death, the dukedom was vacant for a couple of years. Emperor Henry III then gave the duchy to Kuno, Count of Zütphen, in 1049. Kuno was deposed in 1053.
Emperor Henry III now gave the duchy first to his young son Henry (VIII), then to an even younger son, Conrad, and upon the latter's death gave it back to Henry VIII again. Henry VIII became King of Germany (as Henry IV) in 1056.
- Ερρίκος Η' (Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor|Henry VIII]] 1053-1054, 1055-1061 (minor) Salian
- Conrad II 1054-1055 (minor) Salian
- Otto II 1061-1070 Northeim
In 1070, King Henry IV deposed duke Otto, granting the duchy instead to Count Welf, a member of the Italo-Bavarian family of Este. Welf subsequently quarreled with King Henry and was deprived of his duchy for nineteen years, during which it was directly administered by the German crown. Welf recovered the duchy in 1096, and was succeeded by his sons Welf (II) and Henry (IX); the latter was succeeded by his son, Henry (X), who also became Duke of Saxony.
- Welf I 1070-1077, 1096-1101 Welf
- Welf II 1101-1120 Welf
- Ερρίκος Θ' (Henry IX the Black) 1120-1126 Welf, abdicated.
- Ερρίκος Ι' (Henry X the Proud) 1126-1139 Welf
In a power struggle with King Conrad III of Germany, Henry X lost his duchy to the King, who granted it to his follower Leopold Margrave of Austria. When Leopold died, Conrad resumed the duchy and then granted it to Leopold's brother Henry (XI).
- Leopold 1139-1141 Babenberg
- Ερρίκος ΙΑ' (Henry II of Austria|Henry XI Jasomirgott) 1143-1156 Babenberg
When Frederick I became King of Germany, he restored Bavaria to the Welf line in the person of Henry X's son, Henry (XII) the Lion, Duke of Saxony.
- Ερρίκος ΙΒ' (Henry XII the Lion) 1156-1180 Welf
Wittelsbach Dynasty 1180-1253Edit
In 1180, Henry XII and Emperor Frederick fell out, and Frederick dispossessed the Duke and gave his territory to Otto (I) of the House of Wittelsbach. Bavaria remained in the possession of various branches of the family until the First World War.
- Otto I 1180-1183. Succeeded by his son,
- Louis I 1183-1231 – obtained the Palatinate of the Rhine in 1214; assassinated 1231. Succeeded by his son,
- Otto II 1231-1253
Though Otto I of Wittelsbach was the third duke of Bavaria named Otto he is mostly called Otto I as founder of a new dynasty. Louis I and Otto II served also as Counts Palatine of the Rhine.
Bavaria partitioned, 1253-1503Edit
First partition, 1253-1340Edit
On Otto II's death, Bavaria was divided between his sons. Henry became Duke of Lower Bavaria, and Louis of Upper Bavaria. From this point until the beginning of the 16th century, the territories were frequently divided between brothers, making the Dukes difficult to list.
In Lower Bavaria, Henry XIII was succeeded by his three sons, Otto III, Louis III, and Stephen I ruling jointly. Otto III's successor in the joint dukedom was his son Henry XV. Stephen's successors were his sons Otto IV and Henry XIV. Henry XIV's son was John I.
In Upper Bavaria, Louis II was succeeded by his sons Rudolf I and Louis IV. The latter was elected King of Germany in 1314. After John I's death in 1340, Louis IV unified the Bavarian duchy.
Dukes of Lower Bavaria
Dukes of Upper Bavaria
The dukes of Upper Bavaria served also as Counts Palatinate of the Rhine. In 1329 Louis IV released the Palatinate of the Rhine including the Bavarian Upper Palatinate to the sons of Rudolf I. The Upper Palatinate would be reunited with Bavaria in 1623, the Lower Palatinate in 1777.
- Louis IV 1340-1347
- Co-rulers 1347-1349, sons of Louis IV:
Second partition, 1349-1503Edit
In 1349, the six sons of Louis IV again partitioned Bavaria into Upper and Lower Bavaria. Further partitions followed, which are most easily represented in tabular format:
Dukes of Lower Bavaria
Dukes of Upper Bavaria
In 1353, Lower Bavaria was partitioned into Bavaria-Landshut and Bavaria-Straubing.
In 1363, Upper Bavaria was partitioned between Bavaria-Straubing and Bavaria-Landshut.
|Duke of Bavaria-Landshut||Dukes of Bavaria-Straubing |
also Counts of Holland, Zeeland and Hainaut
|Dukes of Bavaria-Landshut||Dukes of Bavaria-Straubing|
In 1392 Bavaria-Landshut was broken into three duchies, Bavaria-Munich, a smaller Bavaria-Landshut, and Bavaria-Ingolstadt.
Bavaria-Straubing was partitioned among the other Bavarian duchies.
|Dukes of Bavaria-Munich||Dukes of Bavaria-Landshut||Dukes of Bavaria-Ingolstadt|
|Dukes of Bavaria-Munich||Duke of Bavaria-Landshut||Dukes of Bavaria-Ingolstadt|
Bavaria-Munich was partitioned into a smaller Bavaria-Munich and Bavaria-Dachau in 1467
Bavaria-Ingolstadt was annexed by Bavaria-Landshut in 1447.
|Dukes of Bavaria-Landshut|
Bavaria-Landshut was annexed by Bavaria-Munich in 1503.
|Duke of Bavaria-Munich||Duke of Bavaria-Dachau|
Bavaria-Dachau was reunited with Bavaria-Munich in 1501.
|Duke of Bavaria-Munich|
Reunited Bavaria, 1505-1918Edit
Dukes of BavariaEdit
Albert IV "the Wise", Duke of Bavaria-Munich, became ruler of the greater part of Bavaria following the Landshut War (1503-1505). In 1506 Albert decreed that the duchy should pass according to the rules of primogeniture. Albert's immediate successors were: his son, William IV, who from 1516 to 1545 was obliged to accept his younger brother, Louis X, as co-ruler; William IV's son, Albert V; Albert's son, William V.
- Albert IV 1504-1508
- Co-rulers, sons of Albert IV:
- Albert V 1550-1579, son of William IV.
- William V 1579-1597, son of Albert V, abdicated. (Died 1626)
- Maximilian I 1597-1623, son of William V.
Electors of Bavaria, 1623-1805Edit
|Electors of Bavaria|
|80px||Maximilian I||1623-1651||Maximilian I, was an occasional ally of Emperor Ferdinand II in the Thirty Years' War. When the Elector Palatine, Frederick V, head of a senior branch of the Wittelsbachs, became involved in a war against the Emperor, he was stripped of his Imperial offices and Electoral title. Maximilian I was granted the Electorship and its offices in 1623, together with a portion of the Palatinate territory (the Oberpfalz). In 1648, Frederick's heir was restored to his territory together with an electorship; however, Maximilian retained the electorship granted him in 1623.|
|Ferdinand Maria||1651-1679||Son of Maximilian I.|
|Maximilian II Emanuel||1679-1706</br>1714-1726||Son of Ferdinand Maria.
Maximilian II took part in the War of the Spanish Succession on the side of France, against the Emperor. He was accordingly forced to flee Bavaria following the Battle of Blenheim and deprived of his Electorate in 1706. He regained his Electorate in 1714 by the Peace of Baden.
|Charles Albert||1726-1745||Son of Maximilian II.
Charles Albert once again took on the House of Habsburg in the War of the Austrian Succession, again in combination with France, succeeding so far as to be elected Holy Roman Emperor in 1742 (as Charles VII). However, the Austrians occupied Bavaria (1742-1744), and the Emperor died shortly after returning to Munich.
|Maximilian III Joseph||1745-1777||Son of Charles Albert.
Maximilian III, who had no children, was the last of the direct Bavarian Wittelsbach line descended from Louis IV. He was succeeded by the Elector Palatine, Charles Theodore, who thereby regained their old titles for the senior Wittelsbach line (descended from Louis IV's older brother Rudolf I).
|Charles Theodore||1777-1799||Elector Palatine from 1743.
Charles Theodore was also childless, and was succeeded by a distant cousin, the Count Palatine of Zweibrücken, Maximilian Joseph.
|Maximilian IV Joseph||1799-1805||Count Palatine of Zweibrücken from 1795.
In the chaos of the wars of the French Revolution, the old order of the Holy Roman Empire collapsed. In the course of these events, Bavaria became once again the ally of France, and Maximilian Joseph abandoned his Electoral title (as there would soon be no Emperor to elect) for the title of King of Bavaria (1805), becoming Maximilian I.
Kings of Bavaria, 1805-1918Edit
|Kings of Bavaria|
|80px||Maximilian I Joseph||1805-1825||Adopted the style of king on January 1, 1806.|
|80px||Ludwig I Augustus||1825-1848 (d.1868)||Son of Maximilian I. Abdicated in the Revolutions of 1848|
|80px||Maximilian II||1848-1864||Son of Ludwig I.|
|80px||Ludwig II||1864-1886||Son of Maximilian II. Acceded to Bavaria becoming a component of the German Empire in 1871. Declared insane in 1886.|
|80px||Otto||1886-1913 (d.1916)||Brother of Ludwig II. Otto was mentally ill throughout his reign, and his functions were carried out by the following regents:|
|80px||Ludwig III||1913-1918||First cousin of Otto, son of Prince Luitpold. Regent 1912-1913. Lost his throne in the German revolutions at the end of the First World War.|
In 1918, Bavaria became a republic.
Minister presidents of Bavaria, 1918-presentEdit
Heads of the House of Wittelsbach since 1918 (not ruling)Edit
- King Ludwig III 1918-1921
- Crown Prince Rupprecht 1921-1955
- Albrecht, Duke of Bavaria 1955-1996
- Franz, Duke of Bavaria 1996-present
- Ομώνυμο άρθρο στην Βικιπαίδεια
- Ομώνυμο άρθρο στην Livepedia
- Official site of the House of Wittelsbach
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