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Ηγεμόνες Βουλγαρίας

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Ηγεμόνες Βουλγαρίας

Rulers of Bulgaria


This is a list of Bulgarian monarchs from the earliest historical records to 1946, when the monarchy in the country was abolished. Early Bulgarian rulers are believed to have used the title Khan (see Bulgar society for more details), later possibly kniaz, and still later the title tsar. According to Djagfar tarikhy (a 17th century Volga Bulgar source which is widely suspected to be a hoax and is generally not used in historical research), the earliest Bulgar leaders bore the title of baltavar, i.e. the Turkic "Elteber", a viceroy, known from the Chinese annals by its Chinese equivalent "Sylifa" and documented in the 10-th century by Al-Masoudi as a title used among the Dagestani Bulgars. The title Elteber or its variations like Ilutwer, Ilutver was recorded between the North Caucasian Huns, and Yiltawar or İltäbär (ibn Fadlan) in the Volga Bulgaria.

The title tsar was first adopted and used in Bulgaria by Simeon I following a decisive victory over the Byzantine Empire in 913. It was also used by all of Simeon I's successors until the fall of Bulgaria under Ottoman rule in 1396 . After Bulgaria's liberation from the Ottomans in 1878, its first monarch Alexander I adopted the title kniaz, but as complete independence was officially proclaimed under his successor Ferdinand in 1908, the title was changed to tsar again. Tsar was used by Ferdinand and later by his heir Boris III until the abolition of monarchy in 1946.

Note: before reaching the historical rulers (see below), the Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans mention two legendary or semi-legendary rulers who are described as having lived for centuries: Avitokhol (sometimes identified as Attila the Hun, 300 years) and Irnik (sometimes identified as Attila's son Ernakh, 150 years), as well as a regent, Gostun (2 years).

List of Bulgarian rulers (632-1946)Edit

Great Bulgaria (632-681)Edit

The Dulo clan (first reign, 605-753)Edit

At times, the reign in the Bulgar lands was split.

  • Kubrat (605 - 665) over Onogunduri
  • Batbayan (665 - 668) over Onogunduri

First Bulgarian Empire (681-1018)Edit

Portrait Name Khan From Khan Until
ΑσπάραχοςAsparukh 681700
ΤέρβελοςTervel 700721
Κορμέρσιος Kormesiy 721738
Σέβαρος Sevar 738753

The Ukil clan (753-766)Edit

Portrait Name Khan From Khan Until
Κόρμισος Kormisosh 753756
Βίνεχος Vinekh 756762
Τήλετος Telets
a member of the Ugain clan
762765
Σάβινος Sabin 765766
Ούμορος Umor
766766

The Ugain clan (766-803)Edit

Portrait Name Khan From Khan Until
Τόκτος Toktu 766767
Πάγανος Pagan 767768
Τηλέριγος Telerig 768777
Κάρδαμος Kardam 777803

Krum's dynasty, or possibly a second reign of the Dulo clan (803-997)Edit

Portrait Name Khan/Emperor From Khan/Emperor Until
ΚρούμμοςKrum 80313 April 814
ΟμόρταγοςOmurtag 814831
Μαλάμηρος Malamir 831836
Πρεσιανός Presian 836852
Βόρις Α'Boris I 852889 (died on 2 May 907)
Βλαδίμηρος Vladimir 889893
Συμεών Α'Simeon I the Great 89327 May 927
Πέτρος Α'Peter I 27 May 927969 (died on 30 January 970)
Βόρις Β' Boris II 969971
ΡωμανόςRoman I 976997 (simultaneously with Samuil 976 - 997)

House of Comitopuli (976-1018)Edit

Portrait Name Emperor From Emperor Until
Σαμουήλ Samuil 997(simultaneously with Roman I 976 - 997)6 October 1014
Γαβριήλ-Ραδόμηρος Gavril Radomir October 1014August 1015
Ιωάννης-ΛαδίσλαοςIvan Vladislav August 1015February 1018
Πέτρος Β'Peter II Delyan 10401041
Πέτρος Γ'Peter III (Constantin Bodin) 10721072

Byzantine rule (1018-1186)Edit

Second Bulgarian Empire (1186-1395/1422)Edit

House of Asen (1186-1280)Edit

Portrait Name Emperor From Emperor Until
Πέτρος Δ'Peter IV 11851190
Ιωάννης Α'Ivan Asen I 11901196
Πέτρος Δ'Peter IV 11961197
Ιωάννης Β'Kaloyan 11971207
Βορίλος Boril 12071218
Ιωάννης Γ'Ivan Asen II 12181241
Καλλίμανος Α'Kaliman I Asen 12411246
Μιχαήλ Β'Michael I Asen 12461256
Καλλίμανος Β'Kaliman II Asen 12561256
Μιχαήλ Βα'Mitso Asen 12561257
Κωνσταντίνος Α' Constantine Tikh Asen 12571277
Ιωάννης Γα'Ivailo 12771280 (a peasant rebel leader)
Ιωάννης Δ'Ivan Asen III 12791280

House of Terter (first reign, 1280-1292)Edit

Portrait Name Emperor From Emperor Until
Γεώργιος Α'George I Terter 12801292

House of Smilets (1292-1298)Edit

Portrait Name Emperor From Emperor Until
ΣμίλητοςSmilets 12921298

Mongol monarch in Bulgaria (1298-1300)Edit

Portrait Name Emperor From Emperor Until
ΣάκοςChaka 12991300

House of Terter (second reign, 1300-1323)Edit

Portrait Name Emperor From Emperor Until
Θεόδωρος Β' Teodor II Svetoslav13001321
Γεώργιος Β' George II Terter13211322

House of Shishman (1323-1396/1422)Edit

Portrait Name Emperor From Emperor Until
Μιχαήλ Γ' Michael III Shishman13231330
Ιωάννης Ε'Ivan Stephen13301331
Ιωάννης ΣΤ'Ivan Alexander13311371
Ιωάννης Ζ'Ivan Shishman13711395
Ιωάννης Η'Ivan Stratsimir13561396
Κωνσταντίνος Β' Constantine II13961422

Ottoman rule (1396/1422-1878)Edit

Kingdom of Bulgaria (1878-1946)Edit

House of Battenberg (1879-1886)Edit

Portrait Name Knyaz From Knyaz Until
ΑλέξανδροςAlexander I 29 April 18797 September 1886

House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (1887-1946)Edit

Portrait Name King From King Until
ΦερδινάνδοςFerdinand I7 July 18873 October 1918 (abdicated)
Βόρις Γ'Boris III3 October 191828 August 1943
Συμεών Β'Simeon II28 August 194315 September 1946 (deposed)

Death of the Bulgarian monarchs Edit

Monarch Death
AsparukhPerished in battle against the Khazars in 700
TervelDied of natural death in 721
KormesiyDied of natural death in 738
SevarDied of natural death in 753
KormisoshMurdered in 756
VinekhMurdered in 762
TeletsMurdered in 765
SabinFled to Constantinople in 766
UmorFled to Constantinople in 766
ToktuKilled in the forests of the Danube in 767
PaganKilled near Varna in 768
TelerigFled to Constantinople in 777
KardamDied of natural death in 802
KrumDied of natural death on 13 April 814
OmurtagDied of natural death in 831
MalamirDied of natural death in 836
PresianDied of natural death in 852
Boris IAbdicated in 889, died of natural death on 2 May 907
VladimirDeposed in 893, unknown death
Simeon I the GreatDied of natural death on 17 May 927
Peter IAbdicated in 969, died of natural death on 30 January 970
Boris IIAbdicated in 971, killed accidentally by a Bulgarian border patrol in 977
RomanCaptured again in 991, died in prison in Constantinople in 997
SamuilDied of natural death on 6 October 1014
Gavril RadomirMurdered by his cousin Ivan Vladislav in August 1015
Ivan VladislavPerished in the siege of Drach in February 1018
Peter II DelyanPerished or captured in the battle of Ostrovo in 1041
Peter IIICaptured in December 1072, died of natural death in 1101
Peter IVAbdicated 1190, murdered during his second reign in 1197
Ivan Asen IMurdered by his cousin Ivanko in 1196
KaloyanMurdered by Manaster in October 1207
BorilDeposed in 1218, died of natural death in monastery
Ivan Asen IIDied of natural death on 24 June 1241
Kaliman I AsenPoisoned in September 1246
Michael AsenMuredered by his cousin Kaliman in 1256
Kaliman II AsenMurdered in 1256
Mitso AsenFled in 1257, died of natural death in Byzantium c.1277
Constantine Tikh AsenKilled in battle by Ivailo in 1277
IvailoKilled by the Tatars in 1280
Ivan Asen IIIFled to Constantinople in 1280, died of natural death in 1303
George I TerterAbdicated in 1292, died of natural death in 1308/9
SmiletsDied of natural death in 1298
ChakaStrangled in 1300
Theodore SvetoslavDied of natural death in November 1321
George II TerterDied of natural death in December 1322
Michael III ShishmanMortally wounded in the battle of Velbazhd, died four days later on 31 July 1330
Ivan StefanDeposed in 1331, died of natural death in 1343
Ivan AlexanderDied of natural death on 17 February 1371
Ivan ShishmanKilled in 1395
Ivan SratsimirDeposed in 1396, strangled in 1397
Constantine IIDied of natural death on 17 September 1422
AlexanderAbdicated on 8 September 1886, died of natural death on 23 October 1893
FerdinandAbdicated on 3 October 1918, died of natural death on 10 September 1948
Boris IIIDied on 28 August 1943
Simeon IIAlive, Deposed on 15 September 1946

Κατάλογος RaexEdit

First Bulgar Kingdom Edit

DULO-Asparukh

Asparukh 681-702

Tervel 702-718

Tovirem 718-725

Sevar 725-740


VOKIL

Kormisos 740-756


OUKIL

Vinech 756-762


OUGAIN

Telech 762-765


OUKIL

Sabin 765 d. 767

OUGAIN

Magan (or Pagan) 765 d. 772


OUKIL

Sabin (restored) 765-767

Romar (or Umar) 767


OUGAIN

Toktu 767-772 with...

Tavkhan Bayan 767- ?

Magan (or Pagan) (restored) 772

Telerig 772-777

Kardam 777-803


DULO-Kuber

Krum 803-814

Dukum 814

Chok (or Tsok) 814-816 with...

Ditsen 814-816

Omortag 816-831

Malamir 831-836

Presijan I 836-852

Boris I 852-889



In 864 Boris and his closest associates were baptized, making Bulgaria a Christian state. After considerable turbulence in compelling his people to accept the new faith (52 boyars were executed in the course of conversions), Boris' innovations created a favorable environment for the development of Old Church Slavonic, and the Glagolitic and Cyrillic alphabets (invented by Thessalonian missionaries, Ct. Cyril and St. Methodius) as the mediums of expression for the new ideas. Bulgaria under the last Dulos became the first center of Slavonic letters and culture.


Vladimir Pakate 889-893

Simeon I the Great 893-927

Peter I 927-969

Boris II 969-971 d. 977: opposed by...


RURIKOVICH

Svyatoslav (Prince of Kiev 945-972) 969-971


To Byzantine Empire 971-976


KOMITOPUL

David 976-987 with...

Moses 976-987 and...

Aaron 976-987 and...

Samuel 976-1014

Gabriel Rodomir 1014-1015

John (a) Vladislav 1015-1018

Presijan II 1018


To Byzantine Empire 1018-1185

The following individuals led revolts against Byzantine authority, some of them using the title of Tsar.

Ivats

Tihomir

John (b) Vladimir

Peter II Delyan (son of Gabriel Rodomir) 1040-1041 with...

Alusian (son of John Vladislav) 1040-1041

Peter III (Constantine Bodin) 1072

George (a) Voitech. 1072-1073


Second Bulgarian Kingdom Edit

ASEN

Peter IV 1185-1187 d. 1197

(John (I)) Asen I the Strong 1187-1196

Peter IV (restored 1196 - 1197

John (II) Kalojan 1197-1207

(Boris IIa) Boril 1207-1218

John (III) Asen II 1218-1241


Under Mongol vassalage 1241-1299

Koloman I 1241-1246

Michael II 1246-1256

Koloman II 1256


RURIKOVICH

Michael (IIb) of Galitzia 1256-1257 d. 1269


ASEN

Constantine I 1258-1277


Unknown

(John (IIIa)) Ivajlo 1277-1279


ASEN

John (IV) Asen III 1279-1280


TERTER

George I 1280-1292


SMILECH

Smilech 1292-1298

John (V) 1298-1299


NOGAI

Chaka the Usurper 1299


TERTER

Theodore Svyatoslav 1300-1321

George II 1321-1323


SISHMAN

Michael III 1323-1330

John (VI) Stephen 1330-1331

John (VII) Alexander 1331-1371 with...

Michael (IV) Asen 1336-1354 and...

John (VIII) Stracimir (at Vidin from 1356) 1336-1396 with...


To the Ottoman Empire.............................1371-1683

Constantine II 1371-1396 and...

Voislav

Michael (V) Svyatoslav

John (IX) (at Tyrnovo) 1371-1395 and...

Alexander 1371-1395


Ottoman Walis (Governors) of Vidin

Unknown number of Ottoman Pashas


Vidin district to Austria 1683-1690


To the Ottoman Empire 1690-1908

Εσωτερική ΑρθρογραφίαEdit

ΒιβλιογραφίαEdit

ΙστογραφίαEdit


Ikl.jpg Κίνδυνοι ΧρήσηςIkl.jpg

Αν και θα βρείτε εξακριβωμένες πληροφορίες
σε αυτήν την εγκυκλοπαίδεια
ωστόσο, παρακαλούμε να λάβετε σοβαρά υπ' όψη ότι
η "Sciencepedia" δεν μπορεί να εγγυηθεί, από καμιά άποψη,
την εγκυρότητα των πληροφοριών που περιλαμβάνει.

"Οι πληροφορίες αυτές μπορεί πρόσφατα
να έχουν αλλοιωθεί, βανδαλισθεί ή μεταβληθεί από κάποιο άτομο,
η άποψη του οποίου δεν συνάδει με το "επίπεδο γνώσης"
του ιδιαίτερου γνωστικού τομέα που σας ενδιαφέρει."

Πρέπει να λάβετε υπ' όψη ότι
όλα τα άρθρα μπορεί να είναι ακριβή, γενικώς,
και για μακρά χρονική περίοδο,
αλλά να υποστούν κάποιο βανδαλισμό ή ακατάλληλη επεξεργασία,
ελάχιστο χρονικό διάστημα, πριν τα δείτε.



Επίσης,
Οι διάφοροι "Εξωτερικοί Σύνδεσμοι (Links)"
(όχι μόνον, της Sciencepedia
αλλά και κάθε διαδικτυακού ιστότοπου (ή αλλιώς site)),
αν και άκρως απαραίτητοι,
είναι αδύνατον να ελεγχθούν
(λόγω της ρευστής φύσης του Web),
και επομένως είναι ενδεχόμενο να οδηγήσουν
σε παραπλανητικό, κακόβουλο ή άσεμνο περιεχόμενο.
Ο αναγνώστης πρέπει να είναι
εξαιρετικά προσεκτικός όταν τους χρησιμοποιεί.

- Μην κάνετε χρήση του περιεχομένου της παρούσας εγκυκλοπαίδειας
αν διαφωνείτε με όσα αναγράφονται σε αυτήν

IonnKorr-System-00-goog.png



>>Διαμαρτυρία προς την wikia<<

- Όχι, στις διαφημίσεις που περιέχουν απαράδεκτο περιεχόμενο (άσεμνες εικόνες, ροζ αγγελίες κλπ.)


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