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Issedones, Issedonians, Yuezhi
Το όνομα "Ισσηδόνες" σχετίζεται ετυμολογικά με τις λέξεις
Οι Ισσηδόνες τοποθετούνται από τον Ηρόδοτο ανατολικά της Σκυθίας και νοτίως των Μασσαγετών, ενώ ο Πτολεμαίος τοποθετεί τους εμπορικούς σταθμούς, Σκυθική Ισσηδόνα και Σηρική Ισσηδόνα στο λεκανοπέδιο του Tarim.
Οι Ισσηδόνες , όπως λέγεται , έχουν τα ακόλουθα έθιμα.
Οταν αποθάνει ο πατέρας κάποιου, όλοι οι συγγενείς φέρουν ζώα στην οικία του υιού του.
Επειτα, αφού τα θυσιάσουν καί τα κόψουν σε κομμάτια, διαμελίζουν το πτώμα.
Αφού αναμείξουν όλα τα κρέατα, στρώνουν τό τραπέζι καί τρώνε.
Την κεφαλή του, αφού της αφαιρέσουν την κόμη καί την καθαρίσουν, την επιχρυσώνουν καί έπειτα την χρησιμοποιούν ως είδωλο, προσφέροντάς της κάθε έτος μεγάλες θυσίες.
Another location of the land of the Issedones can be inferred from the account of Pausanias . According to what the Greek traveller was told at Delos in the second century CE, the Arimaspi were north of the Issedones, and the Scythians were south of them:
- "At Prasiai [in Attika] is a temple of Apollo. Hither they say are sent the first-fruits of the Hyperboreans, and the Hyperboreans are said to hand them over to the Arimaspoi, the Arimaspoi to the Issedones, from these the Skythians bring them to Sinope, thence they are carried by Greeks to Prasiai, and the Athenians take them to Delos." - Pausanias 1.31.2}}
The Asii/Asiani may simply be a transcription of the Issedones of Herodotus. Taishan Yu proposes that Asii were "probably" the dominant tribe of the confederacy of four tribes "from the time that they had settled in the valleys of the Ili and Chu" who later invaded Sogdiana and Bactria. "This would account for their being called collectively "Issedones" by Herodotus." He also states that the "Issedon Scythia and the Issedon Serica took their names from the Issedones." Yu believes that the Issedones must have migrated to the Ili and Chu valleys, "at the latest towards the end of the 7th century B.C."
- The four tribes:
- the Asioi (commonly accepted as the equivalent of the Latin Asii),
- the Pasianoi,
- the Tacharoi (or Tokharoi) and
- the Sakaraukai
W. W. Tarn first thought that the Asii were probably one part of the Yuezhi, the other being the Tochari. However, he later expressed doubts as to this position.
The Asii were identical with the Paisani (Gaisani) and were, therefore, also the Yuezhi. ~ J. Markwart. Ērānšahr
It has been suggested that the Wusun may also be identified in Western sources as their name, pronounced then *o-sən or *uo-suən, is not far removed from that of a people known as the Asiani who the writer Pompeius Trogus (1st century BC) informs us were a Scythian tribe. ~J. P. Mallory and Victor H.Mair, The Tarim Mummies
The Yuezhi and the Wusun were originally two branches of the same people, the Yuezhi being the 'Moon clan'; while the Wusun were the 'Solar clan'. ~ Yury Aleksey Zuev, Early Turks: Essays of History and Ideology
The Asii were probably one of three Scythian tribes, whereas the Tochari were probably not, and should be identified with the Yuezhi. ~ A. K. Narain, The Indo-Greeks
One of the most important sources of information on nomad migration in Central Asia is Justin's Prologue to Pompeius Trogus (prologue to book XLII), which states that 'the Asiani are kings of the Tochari and destroyed the Sacaraucae' (Reges Tocharorum Asiani interiusque Sakaraucarum).
It is possible to conclude from this extract that the Asiani and the Tochari were closely related tribes. What is more, it indicates that the 'Asiani' dominated the 'Tochari' (Reges Tocharorum Asiani).
We can identify the Asiani with the Kushans (von Gutschmidt 1888; Haloun 1937; Bachhofer 1941; Daffina 1967), one of the leading tribes, which subsequently came to power and created a great empire.
It is noteworthy that Justin says that the Tochari were ruled by the Asiani, while the Chinese sources identify them as the largest of the five Yuezhi principalities. ~ Kazim Abdullaev, Nomad Migrations in Central Asia
The Asii have also been identified with the Sanskrit Asiagh.
According to Kautilya they were:
- "The people who depended on Asii (sword) for their living".
The Aswa or Asvaka people are generally believed to be a sub-section of the wider Kamboja group, a widespread tribe of horsemen inhabiting both sides of the Hindukush mountains.
In his Mahabhasya, Patanjali refers to the Arshikas which are said to be same as the Rishikas.
Kasika on Pāṇini (IV.2.132) also mentions the Arshikas and connects them with the Rishikas. The Sanskrit tribal name Rishika has Arshika as its adjective form, the Prakrit form is Isi and Isika or Asi and Asika.
- Ομώνυμο άρθρο στην Βικιπαίδεια
- Ομώνυμο άρθρο στην Livepedia
- Barry Cunliffe, "By Steppe, Desert, and Ocean: The Birth of Eurasia"
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Αν και θα βρείτε εξακριβωμένες πληροφορίες
"Οι πληροφορίες αυτές μπορεί πρόσφατα
Πρέπει να λάβετε υπ' όψη ότι
- Μην κάνετε χρήση του περιεχομένου της παρούσας εγκυκλοπαίδειας
αν διαφωνείτε με όσα αναγράφονται σε αυτήν
- Όχι, στις διαφημίσεις που περιέχουν απαράδεκτο περιεχόμενο (άσεμνες εικόνες, ροζ αγγελίες κλπ.)