Βραβεία Nobel Φυσικής
Στον παρακάτω πίνακα αναφέρονται, ανά δεκαετία, όσοι επιστήμονες έλαβαν βραβείο Nobel Φυσικής καθώς και η αιτιολογία της απονομής.
Δεκαετία 1900 Edit
Χρονολογία | Όνομα | Χώρα | Επιστημονική Προσφορά |
---|---|---|---|
1900 | - | - | - |
1901 | Rontgen Wilhelm-Conrad | Γερμανία | "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable Röntgen rays (or x-rays)
«για την ανακάλυψη των ακτίνων Χ» |
1902 | Lorentz Hendrik-Antoon (The Netherlands) Zeeman Pieter | Netherlands | "in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena". ( Zeeman effect)
«για τις έρευνές τους περί την επιρροή του Μαγνητισμού σε φαινόμενα ακτινοβολίας» (Φαινόμενο Ζέεμαν) |
1903 | Becquerel Antoine-Henri | "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity"
«για την ανακάλυψη της αυθόρμητης Ραδιενέργειας» | |
Curie Pierre (France) Curie Maria Sklodowska | Poland/France | "in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel"
«για τις έρευνές τους πάνω στα φαινόμενα ακτινοβολίας της αυθόρμητης Ραδιενέργειας» | |
1904 | Rayleigh John (Strutt John-William, 3rd Baron Rayleigh) | UK | "for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies"
«για τις έρευνές του πάνω στις πυκνότητες των πιο σημαντικών αερίων και για την ανακάλυψη του αργού σε συσχέτιση με τις παραπάνω μελέτες»[ |
1905 | von Lenard Phillip Eduard Anton | Germany | "for his work on cathode rays"
«για τις εργασίες του επί των καθοδικών ακτίνων» |
1906 | Sir Thomson Joseph John | "in recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases"
«ως αναγνώριση για τη συμβολή του στις θεωρητικές και πειραματικές εργασίες επί της ηλεκτρικής αγωγιμότητας των αερίων» | |
1907 | Michelson Albert Abraham | "for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid". (Michelson-Morley experiment).
«για τις οπτικές συσκευές ακριβείας (που κατασκεύασε) και τις εργασίες στη Φασματοσκοπία που ακολούθησαν με τη βοήθειά τους» (Πείραμα Michelson-Morley). | |
1908 | Lippmann Gabriel | "for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference"
«για την μέθοδο της αναπαραγωγής χρωμάτων φωτογραφικά, βασισμένη στο φαινόμενο της συμβολής» | |
1909 | Marconi Guglielmo and Braun Karl Ferdinand | "in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy"
«για τη συμβολή τους στην ανάπτυξη της Ασύρματης Τηλεγραφίας» |
Δεκαετία 1910 Edit
Χρονολογία | Όνομα | Χώρα | Επιστημονική Προσφορά |
---|---|---|---|
1910 | Van der Waals Johannes Diderik | The Netherlands | "For his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids." Βλέπε: Van der Waals force |
1911 | Wien Wilhelm | "For his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat." Βλέπε: Wien law | |
1912 | Dalen Niels Gustaf | "For his invention of automatic regulators for use in conjunction with gas accumulators for illuminating lighthouses and buoys." | |
1913 | Kamerlingh-Onnes Heike | Netherlands | "For his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium" |
1914 | von Laue Max | "For his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals." | |
1915 | Sir Bragg William-Henry and Bragg William-Lawrence | "For their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays." | |
1916 | - | - | (The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.) |
1917 | Barkla Charles Glover | "For his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements." | |
1918 | Planck Max | "In recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta." | |
1919 | Stark Johannes | "For his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields." See: Stark effect |
Δεκαετία 1920 Edit
Χρονολογία | Όνομα | Χώρα | Επιστημονική Προσφορά |
---|---|---|---|
1920 | Guillaume Charles Edouard | "in recognition of the service he has rendered to precision measurements in Physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel steel alloys" | |
1921 | Einstein Albert | Germany /US | "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his explanation of the photoelectric effect" |
1922 | Bohr Niels Henrik David | Denmark | "for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them" |
1923 | Millikan Robert Andrews | US | "for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect" |
1924 | Siegbahn Manne Karl Georg | "for his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy" | |
1925 | Franck James and Hertz Gustav Ludwig | "for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom" | |
1926 | Perrin Jean Baptiste | "for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium" | |
1927 | Compton Arthur Holly | US | "for his discovery of the Compton Effect, named after him". |
Wilson Charles Thomson Rees | Scotland | "for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour". See: Cloud chamber | |
1928 | Richardson Owen-Willans | "for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him" | |
1929 | De Broglie Louis Victor Pierre Raymond | France | "for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons" (De Broglie hypothesis) |
Δεκαετία 1930 Edit
Χρονολογία | Όνομα | Χώρα | Επιστημονική Προσφορά |
---|---|---|---|
1930 | Raman Chandrasekhara Venkata | India | "for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him" |
1931 | - | - | (The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.) |
1932 | Heisenberg Werner Karl | Germany | "for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen" |
1933 | Schrodinger Erwin and Dirac Paul Adrien Maurice | Germany - UK | "for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory" |
1934 | - | - | (The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.) |
1935 | Chadwick James | UK | "for the discovery of the neutron" |
1936 | Hess Victor Franz | "for his discovery of cosmic radiation" | |
Anderson Carl David | US | "for his discovery of the positron" | |
1937 | Davisson Clinton Joseph and Thomson George Paget | "for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals". See: wave-particle duality | |
1938 | Fermi Enrico | Italy & US | "for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons" |
1939 | Lawrence Ernest Orlando | US | "for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements" |
Δεκαετία 1940 Edit
Χρονολογία | Όνομα | Χώρα | Επιστημονική Προσφορά |
---|---|---|---|
1940 | - | - | The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section. |
1941 | - | - | The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section. |
1942 | - | - | The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section. |
1943 | Stern Otto | "for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton" | |
1944 | Rabi Isidor Isaac | "for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei" | |
1945 | Pauli Wolfgang Ernst | "for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli principle" | |
1946 | Bridgman Percy Williams | "for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made there within the field of high pressure physics" | |
1947 | Appleton Edward Victor | "for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer" | |
1948 | Blackett Patrick Maynard Stuart | "for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation" | |
1949 | Yukawa Hideki | "for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces". Βλέπε: Yukawa potential |
Δεκαετία 1950 Edit
Χρονολογία | Όνομα | Χώρα | Επιστημονική Προσφορά |
---|---|---|---|
1950 | Powell Cecil Frank | "for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method" | |
1951 | Cockcroft John Douglas and Walton Ernest Thomas Sinton | "for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles" | |
1952 | Bloch Felix and Purcell Edward Mills | "for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith" | |
1953 | Zernike Frits (Frederik) ( | Netherlands | "for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope" |
1954 | Born Max | "for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction" | |
Bothe Walther | "for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith" | ||
1955 | Lamb Willis Eugene | "for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum". (Lamb shift) | |
Kusch Polykarp | "for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron" | ||
1956 | Shockley William Bradford and Bardeen John and Brattain Walter Houser | "for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect" | |
1957 | Yang Chen-Ning and Lee Tsung-Dao | China & US | "for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles" |
1958 | Cherenkov Pavel Alekseyevich and Frank Ilya and Tamm Igor Yevgenyevich | "for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov-Vavilov effect" | |
1959 | Serge Emilio Gino and Chamberlain Owen | "for their discovery of the antiproton" |
Δεκαετία 1960 Edit
Χρονολογία | Όνομα | Χώρα | Επιστημονική Προσφορά |
---|---|---|---|
1960 | Donald Arthur Glaser | "for the invention of the bubble chamber" | |
1961 | Hofstadter Robert | "for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons" | |
Mossbauer Rudolf Ludwig (Mössbauer) | "for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name". See:Mossbauer effect | ||
1962 | Landau Lev Davidovich | Russia | "for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium" |
1963 | Wigner Eugene Paul | "for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles" | |
Goeppert-Mayer Maria and Jensen J. Hans D. | "for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure" | ||
1964 | Townes Charles Hard and Basov Nicolay Gennadiyevich and Aleksandr Prokhorov | "for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle" | |
1965 | Tomonaga Sin-Itiro (Japan) and Schwinger Julian (US) and Feynman Richard P. (US) | "for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles" | |
1966 | Kastler Alfred Kastler | "for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms" | |
1967 | Bethe Hans Albrecht | Germany & US | "for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars" |
1968 | Alvarez Luis Walter | "for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis" | |
1969 | Gell-Mann Murray | US | "for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions". See: Eightfold way |
Δεκαετία 1970 Edit
Χρονολογία | Όνομα | Χώρα | Επιστημονική Προσφορά |
---|---|---|---|
1970 | Alfven Hannes Olof Gösta | for fundamental work and discoveries in magneto-hydrodynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of Plasma Physics | |
Neel Louis Eugene Félix | for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics | ||
1971 | Gabor Dennis Gabor | for his invention and development of the holographic method | |
1972 | Bardeen John and Cooper Leon Neil and Schrieffer John Robert | for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory | |
1973 | Esaki Leo and Giaever Ivar | (Japan & US) - ? | "for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively" |
Josephson Brian David | for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effect | ||
1974 | Ryle Martin and Hewish Antony | "for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars" | |
1975 | Bohr Aage Aage Niels (Denmark) and Mottelson Ben Roy and Rainwater Leo James | for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection | |
1976 | Richter Burton Richter and Ting Samuel Chao Chung | for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind". In other words: for discovery of the J/Ψ particle as it confirmed the idea that baryonic matter (such as the nuclei of atoms) is made out of quarks. | |
1977 | Anderson Philip Warren and Mott Nevill Francis and van Vleck John Hasbrouck | for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems | |
1978 | Kapitsa Pyotr Leonidovich | for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics | |
Penzias Arno Allan and Wilson Robert-Woodrow | for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation | ||
1979 | Glashow Sheldon Lee and Salam Abdus (Pakistan) and Weinberg Steven | US - US | for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current |
Δεκαετία 1980 Edit
Χρονολογία | Όνομα | Χώρα | Επιστημονική Προσφορά |
---|---|---|---|
1980 | Cronin James Watson and Fitch Val Logsdon | "for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons". See: CP-violation | |
1981 | Bloembergen Nicolaas (The Netherlands) and Schawlow Arthur Leonard | "for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy" | |
Siegbahn Karl-Manne Börje | "for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy" | ||
1982 | Wilson Kenneth G. | "for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions" | |
1983 | Chandrasekhar Subrahmanyan | "for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars". See Chandrasekhar limit | |
Fowler William Alfred | "for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the Universe" | ||
1984 | Rubbia Carlo and van der Meer Simon | The Netherlands | "for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction" |
1985 | von Klitzing Klaus | "for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect" | |
1986 | Ruska Ernst | "for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope" | |
Binnig Gerd and Rohrer Heinrich | "for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope" | ||
1987 | Bednorz Johannes Georg and Muller Karl Alexander | "for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials" | |
1988 | Lederman Leon Max and Schwartz Melvin and Steinberger Jack | "for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino" | |
1989 | Ramsay Norman Foster | "for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks" | |
Dehmelt Hans Georg and Pauli Wolfgang Paul | "for the development of the ion trap technique" |
Δεκαετία 1990 Edit
Χρονολογία | Όνομα | Χώρα | Επιστημονική Προσφορά |
---|---|---|---|
1990 | Friedman Jerome Isaac and Kendall Henry Way and Taylor Richard Edward | "for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics" | |
1991 | Gennes Pierre-Gilles | "for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers" | |
1992 | Charpak Georges | France | "for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber" |
1993 | Hulse Russell Alan and Taylor Joseph Hooton Junior | "for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation" | |
1994 | Brockhouse Bertram Neville | "for the development of neutron spectroscopy" and "for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter" | |
Shull Clifford Glenwood | "for the development of the neutron diffraction technique"
and "for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter" | ||
1995 | Perl Martin Lewis | "for the discovery of the tau lepton" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics" | |
Reines Frederick | "for the detection of the neutrino" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics" | ||
1996 | Lee David Morris and Osheroff Douglas Dean and Richardson Robert Robert Coleman | "for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3" | |
1997 | Chu Steven (China & US) and Tannoudji Claude (Cohen-Tannoudji) (France), and Phillips William Daniel | "for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light" | |
1998 | Laughlin Robert B. and Stormer Horst Ludwig and Tsui Daniel Chee | "for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations" (Quantum Hall effect) | |
1999 | Hooft Gerard ('t Hooft) and Veltman Martin J.G. | Netherlands | "for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics" |
Δεκαετία 2000 Edit
Χρονολογία | Όνομα | Χώρα | Επιστημονική Προσφορά |
---|---|---|---|
2000 | |||
Alferov Zhores Ivanovich and Kroemer Herbert | - | "for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and Optoelectronics" | |
Kilby Jack St. Clair | US | "for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit" | |
2001 | Cornell Eric Allin and Ketterle Wolfgang and Wieman Carl Edwin | - | "for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates" |
2002 | Davis Raymond Junior and Koshiba Masatoshi (Japan) | - | "for pioneering contributions to Astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos" |
Giacconi Riccardo | - | "for pioneering contributions to Astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources" | |
2003 | Abrikosov Alexei Alexeyevich and Ginzburg Vitaly Lazarevich and Leggett Anthony James | - | "for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids" |
2004 | Gross David J. and Politzer David H. and Wilczek Frank | - | "for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction" |
2005 | Glauber Roy J. | - | "for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence" |
Hall John Lewis "Jan" and Hansch Theodor W. | - | "for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique" | |
2006 | Mather John C. | United States | "for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation"^{[1]} |
Smoot George F. | United States | ||
2007 | Fert Albert | France | "for the discovery of giant magnetoresistance"^{[2]} |
Grunberg Peter | Germany | ||
2008 | Kobayashi Makoto | Japan | "for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in Nature"^{[3]} |
Maskawa Toshihide | Japan | ||
Nambu Yoichiro | United States | for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in Subatomic Physics"^{[3]} | |
2009 | Kao Charles K. | Japan | for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication |
Boyle Willard S. | Japan | ||
Geim Andre | United States | for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit (the CCD sensor) |
Δεκαετία 2010 Edit
Χρονολογία | Όνομα | Χώρα | Επιστημονική Προσφορά |
---|---|---|---|
2010 | Geim Andre | ? | for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene |
Novoselov Konstantin | ? | for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene | |
2011 | Perlmutter Saul | ? | for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae |
Schmidt Brian P. | ? | for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae | |
Riess Adam G. | ? | for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae | |
2012 | Haroche Serge | - | ? |
Wineland David J. | ? | ? | |
2013 | [[]] | ? | ? |
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2014 | [[]] | - | ? |
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2015 | [[]] | ? | ? |
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2016 | [[]] | - | ? |
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2017 | [[]] | ? | ? |
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2018 | [[]] | - | ? |
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2019 | [[]] | ? | ? |
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Εσωτερική ΑρθρογραφίαEdit
ΒιβλιογραφίαEdit
ΙστογραφίαEdit
Κίνδυνοι Χρήσης |
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Αν και θα βρείτε εξακριβωμένες πληροφορίες "Οι πληροφορίες αυτές μπορεί πρόσφατα Πρέπει να λάβετε υπ' όψη ότι Επίσης, |
- Μην κάνετε χρήση του περιεχομένου της παρούσας εγκυκλοπαίδειας
αν διαφωνείτε με όσα αναγράφονται σε αυτήν
- Όχι, στις διαφημίσεις που περιέχουν απαράδεκτο περιεχόμενο (άσεμνες εικόνες, ροζ αγγελίες κλπ.)
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