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I Αιγυπτιακή Δυναστεία
Known rulers in the history of Egypt for the First Dynasty are as follows:
|Μήνης||(Narmer)||c. 3100–3050 B.C.|
|Άθωθις Α'||(Aha)||c. 3050–3049 B.C.|
|Άθωθις Β'||(Djer)||c. 3049–3008 B.C. 41 years (Palermo Stone)|
|Μέρνεθις||Merneith, the mother of Den||3008?|
|Ουένεφις||Den||2975–2935 30 to 50 years (40 years?)|
|Μίεβις||(Anedjib)||2935?–2925? 10 years (Palermo Stone)|
|Σέμερχις||(Semerkhet)||2925?–2916? 9 years (Palermo Stone)|
| της Αιγύπτου
|1η Δυναστεία I|
DYNASTY I (1st ) 3014 - 2795 Imperators (Αυτοκράτορες) Μέμφις
A sequence and number of rulers of this Dynasty is pretty well established. Some doubts arise in case of queen Merytneith who lived in time of Djet and Den. Some scholars identify her with the pharaoh Merneith. Unfortunately, for lack of any serekh with his name the identification remains suspect. The length of reign of Dynasty I kings is hardly to establish because of lack of any reliable evidence save the very questionable transcriptions from Manetho and fragmentary records on the Palermo Stone. Until now the scholars are not thoroughly unanimous as to the burial place of the I dynasty pharaohs. Already Manetho favored the opinion that cemetery of rulers of that period was at Abydos in Upper Egypt, or more precisely: Umm el-Qaab necropolis located nearby. In years 1938-58, at Memphite necropolis, north Sakkara, had been discovered a cemetery dated back to the I dynasty period. Number and size of mastabas discovered at Sakkara suggest that was a burial place of the kings of the unified land while tombs at Abydos are merely cenotaphs (empty tombs). At Sakkara, around almost all royal tombs (excluding Aha and Semerkhet), there are numerous tombs of higher court nobles. Both theories have as much followers as opponents, however in light of recent analysis and excavations of the German expedition at Umm el-Qaab necropolis, it can be assumed that kings of the archaic period were buried just in the Umm el-Quaab necropolis in Upper Egypt.
H.N.: Nar-mer ( = striking catfish, or beloved of Nar)
> Meni ( = The one who remains?) son of *Μήνις (Μήνης) ο *Ενοποιητής 3014 - 2974
Manethon gives to him 28 years. He, as the king of Upper Egypt, went to war with the king of Lower Egypt and won. He annexed the Kingdom of the Delta, and took the red crown of his defeated adversary his authority directly from the Pharaoh. Narmer found the city of Memphis and to better protect it, he surrounded it with an enormous white wall. The work on this huge undertaking lasted for several reigns of his successors. Narmer divided the kingdom of the Delta of the Nile into 16 Provinces, and he added to this the 22 districts or Provinces of Upper Egypt. Every district was administrated by a governor who took his authority directly from the Pharaoh. He was mythic and historical founder of unified Egyptian empire. It may have something to do with god Min and so is this name presented by Herodotus. In J.P. Allen opinion this name is related to name of the city of Memphis, founded by Menes. In a cylindrical sealing of early dynastic period, apart from the name of Narmer inscribed in serekh, there is also the symbol men which might identify Menes-Narmer. Some scholars (P. Kaplony, W. Helck, D. Wildung) identify this king with Horus-Aha, the second ruler of this dynasty, and they suggest that he might have been a son of another Narmer. According to Manethonian tradition, the victorious king Menes ruled 30-62 years and met his end when carried off by hippopotamus. In Herodotus’ opinion, after he completed wide-scaled land drainage, the ruler founded city of Memphis. Also the first temple of a local deity Ptah, was erected. Traces of Narmer’s rule were found both in Egypt and abroad, in Nubia and Palestine (Rafiah, En Besor, Arad, Tel Erani).
H.N.: Aha ( = the fighting hawk)
- Ithis I
> Iti I (or Teti) son? of Narmer *Ιθις Α΄ (Άθωσις Α΄) ο *Μαχητής the Fighter 2974 - 2941
Manethon gives to him 57 years. Ηe led several victorious campaigns against the neighboring countries of Nubia and Libya, which earned him the nickname of "Aha - the fighting Pharaoh." Having demonstrated his power over the surrounding nations, he decided to send ambassadors to Canaan and Byblos in Phoenicia (the Lebanon) to establish peace and commercial trade. To consolidate his reign over the kingdom of the North, Aha married Neithotep (the lady who symbolizes the goddess Neith, who brings peace and bountifulness).
H.N.: Djer ( = who succours )
- Ithis II
> Iti II son? of Aha *Ιθις B΄ (*Αθωσις Β΄) (Κένκενις) 2941 - 2894
In light of recent evidence he must have ruled longer than Manetho ascribed to him (31-39 years), possibly up to 50 years. In W. Helck opinion the analysis of eighteen annual inscriptions in Stone of Palermo indicate that Djer ruled at least 54 years. - The ruler put much attention to consolidate political unification of Egypt. - In his 23 years of rule he presumably conquered the land of Sekhat (most likely Sinai and south Palestine). - Inscription with the name of Djer was found at Wadfi Halfa, south to the First Cataract, but its authenticity is questioned by archeologists. - Three annual plates mention some political events: investing at Buto and Dep, importing wood of Lebanon, re-unifying of the land, and others
H.N.: Djet (or Wadjit) ( = snake [cobra])
- Ithis II
> Itiui son of ?Djer *Ιθις Γ΄ (Βένεφις) 2894 - 2881
According to Manetho’s records Benephis ruled 23 years
An interpretation of this king’s Horus-name is very questionable. Manetho mentioned a famine in Egypt under this king’s reign. The Nebti-title of this king is Iterti and it refers to the unification of the Egypt.
In time of Djet and his heir Den, a very mysterious character was living - Merneith (male form) or Merytneith (female form) known because of a tomb at Abydos. According to one hypothesis Merytneith was a daughter of Djer and a wife of Den. Thus she would be a regent in first period of Den’s reign.
H.N.: Den ( = who strikes)
> Sempti (or Udimu) son of ?Wadjit *Σέμθις (Βασαφαίδος) 2881 - 2834
According to Manetho’s records Usafais (Den) ruled 20 years, however other sources assume longer, possibly 35-40 (Godron) or even 45 (Kaplony) regnal period of this pharaoh. - He made numerous expeditions against Asiatic people and nomads of Sinai.
H.N.: Anedj-ib ( = safe is his heart) Merbapen > Mer-ba-pen son of ?Den *Μερβαπήν (Μίεβις) 2834 - 2828
Turin Canon assigned 74 years (of rule?). Manetho argues 26 years to Miebis.
In actual fact he must have not ruled more than 10-12 years although he celebrated his Heb-Sed at least once. He is the first king whose name is recorded on the table of Saqqara, while it is not present on the Palermo Stone at all. One of his wives was Betrest, mother of his follower, Semerkhet, commonly regarded as usurper
H.N.: Semer-khet ( = thoughtful friend) Semsen son of unknown father and queen Betrest? ( = king’s Anedj-ib wife)
Σεμσήν ο *Σφετεριστής 2828 - 2820
Turin Canon of Kings gives to him 72 years (of rule?) while Manethon 18 years His heir to the throne was Qa-a who considered him as an usurper. Annual plate mentions some religious events from Semerkhet’s times, the celebration of ancestors and god Sokar
H.N.: Qa-a ( = his arm is raised)
> Qebeh son? of Semer-khet *Κήβεχις (Βιηνεχής) 2820 - 2795
Turin Canon gives 63 years of rule, while Manethon 26 years. Period of his rule might have been longer (33-34 years), as indicated by data on annual tables.
Possibly he held his predecessor Semerkhet as usurper because
he ordered to destroy his names while the name of his own father, Anedjib, left untouched.
Αν και θα βρείτε εξακριβωμένες πληροφορίες
"Οι πληροφορίες αυτές μπορεί πρόσφατα
Πρέπει να λάβετε υπ' όψη ότι
- Μην κάνετε χρήση του περιεχομένου της παρούσας εγκυκλοπαίδειας
αν διαφωνείτε με όσα αναγράφονται σε αυτήν
- Όχι, στις διαφημίσεις που περιέχουν απαράδεκτο περιεχόμενο (άσεμνες εικόνες, ροζ αγγελίες κλπ.)