II Αιγυπτιακή Δυναστεία
| της Αιγύπτου
|2η Δυναστεία II|
The names of the actual rulers of the Second Dynasty are in dispute. For the first five kings, the sources are fairly close in agreement. Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Second Dynasty are as follows:
|Raneb (also read Nebra)||39|
However, the identity of the next two or three rulers is unclear: we may have both the Horus-name or Nebty (meaning (female) two) -name and their birth names for these rulers; they may be entirely different individuals; or they may be legendary names. On the left are the rulers most Egyptologists place here; on the right are the names that ultimately come from Manetho's Aegyptica:
|Proposed Ruler||Manetho's List|
With the last ruler, we return to an agreement:
Although Manetho states the capital was at Thinis, the same as during the First Dynasty, at least the first three kings were buried at Saqqara, suggesting the center of power had moved to Memphis. Beyond this, little can be said about the events during this period; the annual records on the Palermo stone only survive for the end of the reign of Raneb and for parts of Nynetjer's. One important event possibly happened during the reign of Khasekhemwy: many Egyptologists read his name ("the Two Powers are Crowned") as commemorating the union of Upper and Lower Egypts.
DYNASTY II ( 2nd ) 2795 - 2649 Imperators (Αυτοκράτορες) Μέμφις
Dating by Allen Manethon tells us that the IInd Dynasty consisted of nine kings, ruling for 302 years, but it is difficult to reconcile his statement with the surviving archeological and written evidence. By present state of knowledge we are unable to establish precise order of kings of this dynasty. Two rulers, Hotepsekhemwi and Khasekhemui, are the best known personages of this period. Peribsen-Sekhemib was probably the first religious reformer in the history. Generally times of the Dynasty II are poorly known to us and many scholars still base their opinions more upon suppositions and presumptions than historical facts. It is assumed that between king Hotepsekhemwi, generally believed to be the first ruler of this dynasty, and the last pharaoh of preceeding dynasty, should be placed ephemeral rulers Ba and Sneferka. This is slightly controversial as some scholars (N. Swelim) identify the king Ba with ruler of dynasty III – the king Sekhemkhet.
H.N.: Hotep-sekhem-wi ( =the two powers are satisfied)
> Bau-netjer ( = the powers of the God ) son of *Βώνεθωρ (Βώχος, Βοηθός) 2795 - 2767
There is no information concerning duration of Bau-netjer rule in the Palermo Stone. The Turin Canon mentions 95 years, while Manethon 38 years.
W. Helck suggests that Bedjau was a ruler of dynasty I,
as confirmed by Table of Abydos and so-called little palette of Giza and thus he would be identified with Manethonian Boethus and would have a reign of 39 years It is believed that Bau-netjer drawn aside of rule in a plot organized by his own brother.
H.N.: Neb-re (or Reneb) ( = Ra is the lord)
> Kaka-u son of *Κακαίος (Κεαίχως) 2767 - 2752
Manethon gives to him 39 years. King, whose name is known to us thanks numerous sealings found at Saqqara and Abydos. Mentioned also in royal lists of Abydos and Saqqara, as well as the Turin Canon and by Manetho.
H.N.: Ni-netjer ( = the οne οf the God))
> Ba-n-netjer ( = the ram of the God ) son of *Βάνθωρ ο Ευσεβής (Βίνωθρις) 2752 - 2709
The Turin Canon mentions 95 years of rule, while Manethon 47 years. The Palermo Stone describes numerous religious ceremonies taking place under the his reign.
unknown Horus name
> Wadj-nes ( or Weneg ) son of ? *Βάδνις (Τλας) 2709 - 2702
Manethon gives to him 17 years. Ruler usually identified with his successor Sendj. However the fact that both these names are found in the Table of Abydos suggests something adverse. Generally the period after Ninetjer rule is one of less known in the whole history of Egypt. Thlas is a form of name passed by Manetho and derived probably from wAD-ns in Tables of Abydos and Saqqara
unknown Horus name
Senedi son of ? *Σένεθις (Σέθενις) 2702 - 2692
Turin Canon gives 54 years of rule. Manethon gives to him 41 years.
On the list of kings of this dynasty he is apt to be inserted in various places.
Thus, he has been identified with either Peribsen or Uneg or Sekhemib still with assumption that Peribsen and Sekhemib were two different persons. In W. Helck opinion Sendi lived and ruled immediately after Peribsen, while N. Grimal suggests they both were contemporaries. Thus, it is very likely that Egypt was split at that times although, in general opinion,
this had happened after Sendi’s death
> H.N.: Snefer-ka
unknown (Abydos etc) nomens
son of *Σνεφρόκαϊς (Χαίρις) 2692 - 2684
Manethon gives to him 17 years. Possibly one of the rulers of this, or as P. Kaplony suggests, previous dynasty
unknown Horus name Nefer-ka-Re Ι ( = beautiful soul of Re) son of *Νέφρεχρις A΄ (Νεφέρχερις) ο *Μελιττεύς
Manethon gives to him 25 years. The ruler placed by some scholars somewhere between Peribsen and Khasekhemwi. No artifacts dated to Neferkare’s time survived so that precise localization of the king remains impossible.
unknown Horus name Nefer-ka-Sokar ( = beautiful soul of Sokar) son of Νεφροσόκωρ (Χένερις?) 2684 - 2676
Manethon gives to him 30 years. The ruler inserted by some scholars somewhere between Peribsen and Khasekhemwi. Precise localization of this king remains impossible due to lack of any artifacts dated back to his times. A cylindrical seal with this ruler’s name presumably does not originate from his times. In the Late Period this king enjoyed great popularity.
Hu-djefa (1) son of
Some scholars regard this ruler a one before last of this dynasty and predecessor of Khasekhemwi. The style of inscribing his name, found in Table of Saqqara and Royal Canon of Turin is an incorrect interpretation based on the fact that primary royal name is unreadable
H.N.: Sechem-ib ( = powerful of heart)
> Seth Per-ib-sen ( = hope of all hearts) son of ? *Περιψήν ( = Σεσωχρις?) 2702 - 2676
Manethon gives to him 48 years. The fact that he dropped his Horus name in favor of a Seth name is so weighty that it made historians create a lot of hypotheses. Thus it is assumed that Peribsen might have been usurper or that under his rule a religious revolution took place. Unfortunately there are no artifacts found which might clarify those events. It is believed that Sekhem-ib Pereen-maat and Peribsen were two different kings. Yet some scholars try to identify Sekhemib with Sendi. Simplifying slightly this immensely intricate problem one can assume that Sekhemib was either Peribsen’s successor, as indicated by W. Helck and N. Grimal or they were one person who, for unknown reasons (maybe just religious) changed his Horus name while ruling (E. Drioton, J. Vandier, W. Kaiser).
H.N.: Kha-shekhem(-wi) ( = the powerful one has risen)
> Bepti son of ? hsb of Nima-athapi *Βέπτις 2676 - 2649
The Turin Canon assigns to him a rule of 27 years, 2 months and 1 day. The ruler is regarded as re-unifier of the land disintegrated after Peribsen’ reign. Success over Lower Egypt (he put down rebellions in Northern nomes). By his marriage with North-Egyptian princess Nima-athapi he strengthened his power over the whole territory. Presumably he was father-in-law of Sanakht and Djoser, father of Initkaes and Hetep-hernebti. It is generally believed that after re-unifying he changed his Horus name to Kha-sekhem-ui (in a double number).
Αν και θα βρείτε εξακριβωμένες πληροφορίες
"Οι πληροφορίες αυτές μπορεί πρόσφατα
Πρέπει να λάβετε υπ' όψη ότι
- Μην κάνετε χρήση του περιεχομένου της παρούσας εγκυκλοπαίδειας
αν διαφωνείτε με όσα αναγράφονται σε αυτήν
- Όχι, στις διαφημίσεις που περιέχουν απαράδεκτο περιεχόμενο (άσεμνες εικόνες, ροζ αγγελίες κλπ.)