III Αιγυπτιακή Δυναστεία
| της Αιγύπτου
|3η Δυναστεία III|
The Third Dynasty of ancient Egypt is the first dynasty of the Old Kingdom. Other dynasties of the Old Kingdom include the Fourth, Fifth and Sixth. The capital during the period of the Old Kingdom was at Memphis.
While Μανέθων names Necherophes, and the Turin King List names Nebka (a.k.a. Sanakhte), as the first pharaoh of the Third Dynasty, many contemporary Egyptologists believe Djoser was the first king of this dynasty, pointing out the order in which some predecessors of Khufu are mentioned in the Papyrus Westcar suggests that Nebka should be placed between Djoser and Huni, and not before Djoser. More importantly, seals naming Djoser were found at the entrance to Khasekhemwy's tomb at Abydos, which demonstrates that it was Djoser, rather than Sanakhte, who buried and succeeded this king. The Turin King List scribe wrote Djoser's name in red ink, which indicates the Ancient Egyptians recognition of this king's historical importance in their culture. In any case, Djoser is the best known king of this dynasty, for commissioning his vizier Imhotep to build the earliest surviving pyramids, the Step Pyramid.
Some authorities believe that Imhotep lived into the reign of the Pharaoh Huni. Little is known for certain of Sekhemkhet. However, it is believed that Khaba possibly built the Layer Pyramid at Zawyet el'Aryan.
DYNASTY III ( 3rd ) 2649 - 2565 Imperators (Αυτοκράτορες) Μέμφις
Dating by Allen Royal authority established during the Archaic Period, at the beginning of the Old Kingdom resulted in an increase of Egyptian Empire. The sequence of the IIIrd Dynasty rulers, although very probable, is not completely certain.
Actually, only the pharaoh Djoser-Neterierkhet is well known to us. Scholars’ opinions vary as to the beginnings of this dynasty.
t is known to us a Horus name sA discovered on stone jars from Djoser’s pyramid. Some egyptolgists (P. Kaplony, D. Wildung, J von Beckerath) assign this name to Sanakht, other (W. Helck) regard it as a Horus name of Weneg of dynasty II.
Most reasonable seems to be the theory of J. Vercoutter identifying Horus Sanakht with king Nebka. To him should also be ascribed the abovementioned Horus name Hr sA. All in all it seems that dynasty III overtook the rule without problems. With no doubt the list of pharaohs of dynasties II-III is still not complete and unfinished royal tomb structure Gisr el-Mudir in western Saqqara that N. Swelim assigned to king Sa would support this thesis.
Sa-n-akht (= the victorious protector) or Neb-ka ( = lord of the ka ) son of ? hsb of Initkaes ( = dhr of Khasekhemui and Nima-athapi) *Νέβωχις (Νεχέρωφις ο *Λιβυκός) 2649 - 2630 nb-kA =Nebka (Lord Of The Ka) Hr sA-n-xt =Horus Sanakht (The Victorious Protector) 2727 - 2709 2740 - 2720 (Krauss) 2688-2682 (Redford) 2686-2667 (Shaw) 2682-2665 (von Beckerath) 2649 - 2630 (Allen) 2647-2628 (Malek) Turin Canon assigns to him 19 years of rule while Manethon 28 years. Some scholars believe that Horus Sanacht and king Nebka were two different pharaohs of this dynasty. The Palermo Stone mentions building of a temple in year 13 of his rule, statue of Khasekhemui in year 16 and construction of a ship in year 18.
Netjerier-khet ( = Divine Of Body) Djoser son of ? ?younger bhr and lbhr of Sanakht lson of Khasekhemwi hsb of Hetep-hernebti Τοσόρθος 2630 - 2611 • nTri-X.t Horus Netjerikhet (Divine Of Body) • Nebu (The Golden One) • ...-Dsr sA (Aby.16) , Dsr (Sak.12) , Dsr-it (?) (Tur.3.5) , nbw-Dsr (?) , nTr(?)-Ht-Dsr , Tosorthros (Sesorthos) (Man) 2709 - 2690 NarmerSite 2720 - 2700 (Krauss) 2687 - 2668 (Redford) 2667 - 2648 (Shaw) 2665 - 2645 (von Beckerath) 2630 - 2611 (Allen) 2628 - 2609 (Malek)
Turin Canon assigns to Djoser 19 years and 1 month, while Manetho 29 years of rule. The name of Djoser appears only in times of dynasty XII. Today, with no doubt, he is identified with Hor Netjeri-khet, known thanks to numerous relics.
He was the son (or brother) of Khasekemwi, might have been also younger brother of Sanakht (Vercoutter) or his son (Beckerath and Grimal).
According to W. Helck, Djoser was Khasekhemwi’s son-in-law by his marriage with Hetepher-nebti ( = dhr of Khasekhemui and Nima-athapi). - At the beginning of his rule he resided near Abydos. - However, later on he moved the capital near Memphis. - His vizier and architect, Im-hothep (Ίμουθις), built for him at Sakkara the first monumental stone building. - He made expeditions to Sinai and conquered Nubia or, at least, part of it.
Shekem-khet ( =powerful of body) or Djoser-Teti) hsb of Djeseret-nebti son of *Τέθις (Τύρις) 2611 - 2603
Horus Sekhemkhet (Horus Powerful Of Body) Djoser-Teti
2690 - 2684
2700 - 2695 (Krauss) 2648-2640 (Shaw) 2645-2638 (von Beckerath) 2611-2605 (Allen) 2609-2603 (Malek) Turin Canon assigns to him 6 years of rule, while Manethon 7 years.
After death, he was worshipped and cult of Sekhemkhet can be traced up to the Late Period
or even as late as to the Ptolemaic Period.
Kha-ba ( = the ba [soul] appears) or Nefer-ka-Re ( =beautiful is ka [soul] of Ra ) or Neb-ka-Re son of ? Νέφρεχρις Β΄ (Μέσωχρις) 2603 - 2599 Horus Khaba (The Ba[Soul] Appears) nfr-kA-ra Neferkare (Beautiful Soul [Ka] Of Re)
2684 - 2679 2679-2673 (Redford) 2670 (Krauss) 2640-2637 (Shaw) 2638-2614 (von Beckerath) 2605-2599 (Allen) 2603-2597 (Malek)
Turin Canon assigns to him a rule of 6 years, while Manethon 17 years It is believed that Kha-ba and Nefer-ka-Re were two distinct rulers of this dynasty and that Khaba was identified with Nebka, the first ruler of this dynasty.
Kaihe-djet? ( =? the one with great white crown) or Huni ( = the smiter) son of ? hsb of Meresankh I *Χάνις ο Κρούστης the smiter (Άχης) 2599 - 2575 2679 - 2655 2673-2649 (Redford) 2637-2613 (Shaw) 2599 - 2575 (Allen) 2597-2573 (Malek)
Turin Canon gives 24 years (of rule?), while Manethon 42 years. Apart from Table of Saqqara he is also mentioned in papyri with precepts of Kagemni and Ptahhotep. Presumably he was an owner of seven small step pyramids at Edfu, Abu Rawash, Sinki, Nagada, Zawijet el-Matijtin, el-Kuhla and on Elephantine where he also erected fortresses as confirmed by artifacts bearing his name. His wife, queen Meresankh I was the mother of Snofru.
He held the rule supported by vizier Kagemni.
αν διαφωνείτε με όσα αναγράφονται σε αυτήν
- Όχι, στις διαφημίσεις που περιέχουν απαράδεκτο περιεχόμενο (άσεμνες εικόνες, ροζ αγγελίες κλπ.)