IV Αιγυπτιακή Δυναστεία
| της Αιγύπτου
|4η Δυναστεία 2575 - 2465|
Dating by Allen
Times of Dynasty IV constitute undoubtedly an age of Egyptian glory. The prosperity is authenticated by many monumental tombs-pyramids.
A founder of this dynasty owned enough means to build as much as three objects in that style. His successors created edifices on a breath-taking scale, already in antiquity they were called the Wonders of the World while many our contemporaries believe they are creations of alien civilizations. The economic policy of that period was in fact based on natural resources from mines and quarries as well as on building of temples and tombs. War and trade campaigns, led previously by pharaoh Snofru, gradually seem to loose their significance under his successors.
- Neb-Maat ( = lord of harmony) or Se-neferu ( = he of beauty)
Manethon gives to him 29 years.
The Turin Canon assigns to him 24 years but some scholars think that, following the so-called 24-fould counting, every 2 year, Snefru had ruled 48 years at least, at which point also his building activities.
- He made two expeditions to Nubia and Libya from where returned with thousands of cattle and slaves.
- He organized also oversea expedition to Lebanon for cedar, from where 40 ships loaded with the wood arrived back to Egypt.
Inscriptions of Wadi Maghara give evidence that the whole Sinai was at that time under Egyptian rule. It is believed that between his 12 and 15 year of rule for political reasons he moved his residence and royal necropolis north to Dahshur.
- Me-djed ( = the one who strikes) or Khuphue (< Cheops) ( = protected by [Khnum]),
The Turin Canon records 23 years of rule and Manethon as many as 63 years.
Herodotus (as Diodorus) gives 50 years. He was the builder of the Great Pyramid at Giza.
His family connections are still under discussion. It is thought that Khufu came to the rule after death of his step-brother, unknown from name son of Snofru (Kanefer?).
- Traces of Khufu’s rule have been found at Bubastis, Tanis, Buto and Dendera, Koptos and Hierakonpolis.
- There were exploited also copper and turquoise mines at Synai (Wadi Maghara) and diorite mines near Abu Simbel.
- Kheper ( = who is transformed) or Djed-ef-Re (or Re-djed-ef) ( = enduring like Ra),
The Turin Canon records 8 years of rule.
Manethon gives to him 25 years.
Djedefre was supposed to murder his own brother Kuaf (Kewab) and rule 8 years until dethroned.
Graffitos, in the eastern chamber, with boat by Khufu’s pyramid testify that Djedefre completed his father’s burial which argues with the theory of usurping the rule.
- Weser-ib ( = Strong Of Heart ) or Kha-f-Re < Chephren) ( = appearing like Ra ),
The Turin Canon gives 20 years of rule (the data is to great extent damaged).
Manetho gives 56 (or 66) years. Herodotus (as Diodorus) gives 56 years.
He was builder of the Second Pyramid at Giza and, probably, of Sphinx.
- Extremely little is known about political activity of this ruler.
After Chephren’s death the rule was held probably by regent, Baka, son of Djedefre,
whereupon Mycerinus, son of Chephren ascended the throne.
- Ka-hor?, or Ba-ka-Re,
Manethon gives to him 22 years.
Some scholars (Stadelmann, Lehner) place the king Baka immediately after Khafre assigning to him a few years of rule.
- Ka-khet, ( = the body of a bull), (or Men-kau-Re <
< Mycerinus ) ( = eternal like the souls of Ra),
Turin Canon assigns to him 18 (or 28) years of rule. Manethon gives him 63 years of rule.
Herodotus gives him <44 years of rule.
Apart from magnificent third pyramid of Giza we merely know anything of this ruler.
He was worshipped after his death as confirmed in decrees issued by Shepseskaf, Nemtiemsaf and Pepi II.
- Shepses-khet ( = whose body is noble) or Shepses-kaf
( = his soul is noble)
Turin Canon assigns to him a rule of 4 years while Manetho 7 years.
The king is also mentioned in Palermo Stone.
He completed the funerary complex of Mankaure, the last ruler of the dynasty.
- unknown Horus name, Djed-ef-Ptah, (or Ptah-djed-ef)
< Thamphthis, ( = enduring like Phah),
The Turin Canon assigns to him 2 years of rule, however his name did not survive until now.
Manethon gives him 9 years of rule.
Some scholars believe he was the last ruler of this dynasty.
- 2613 -2589 Sneferu
- 2589 -2566 Khufu (Cheops)
- 2566 -2558 Djedefra (Radjedef)
- 2558 -2532 Khafra (Chephren)
- 2532 -2503 Menkaura (Mycerinus, Mykerinos)
- 2503 -2498 Shepseskaf
- 2498 -2494 "Djedefptah"
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