XII Αιγυπτιακή Δυναστεία
| της Αιγύπτου
|12η Δυναστεία XII|
Δυναστεία ( 12th ) 1937 - 1759
Dating by Lehner A great dynasty, the power of which was comparable with that of the Old Kingdom. The building works all over Egypt have practical aspects, causing immense industrial development. The kings introduce co-regency to facilitate a succession to the throne as a permanent element of rule. After all they were brilliant administrators, builders and warriors.
Many important pieces of literature have been written at that times: Precepts of Amenemhet, Tail of Sinuhe, Story of the Shipwrecked Sailor, Story of the Oasis inhabitant, Loyalistic Precepts showing relationship between loyality to the king and private happiness, The Dramatic Papyrus, Semna Dispatches – records of a crew of fortresses at Nubian boundary, Eloquent Peasant, and many more. Base of this collection are 23 papyri found by Quibell in 1896 at Ramesseum.
Ammenemes I, Amun-em-hat I, ( = Ammon is the foremost ), son of a person of unknown origin, Αμμένεμις Α', ο Αναμορφωτής, 1937 - 1908
He, maybe, was vizier of Mentuhotep IV. An according to one of hypotheses, might have been also coregent of the latter (a pot of Lisht presents names of the two rulers).
He enhanced power of nomarchs, reformed administrative system of the Land. Originating from Thebes, he founded a capital at Itj-tawy (Lisht).
One of his numerous wives was queen Nefru-Tatenen, mother of Senweseret I, another wife was called Didit.
Numerous traces of building activities – Kantir, Bubastis, Heliopolis, Memphis, Wadi Natrun, Abydos, Dendera, Koptos, Tod, Thebes and more. In 29 year of his reign he organized campaign to Nubia, he warred also against Asiatic Bedouins. 11 years before his death (1971 BC) he associated his eldest son with him as coregent. He was murdered in a court coup at a time Senweseret was away. However this hypothesis is not fully proved.
Burial place – pyramid complex at Lisht, near the residence at Itj-tawy. Apart from the ruler’s pyramid, the complex included tombs of queen and princesses and mastabas of court nobles. The side of king’s pyramid was 55m long and its slope was 54o.
Sesostris I, Sen-weseret I, ( = Man Of [Goddess] Wosret), son of Amenemhat I and queen Nehru-Tathenen, Σέσωστρις Α', ο Πολεμικός, 1917 - 1872
Having adjusted internal affairs related to the murder of his father he started conquest of Nubia. His army reaches to the III Cataract.
In year 24 of his reign Egyptian army commanded by Nesmonth campaigned against Bedouins. Three years before his death he admitted to co-regency his son Amenemhat III.
Building activities of this ruler are known as: Satis chapel at Elephantine, Edfu, Hierakonpolis, El-Kab, Temple of Montu at Tod, numerous structures at Karnak, Dendera, Abydos and many other places all over the Land.
Burial place – pyramid complex at Lisht, 2 km south to the Amenemhat I pyramid.
9 minor pyramids of queens and princesses are surrounding the king’s one. In the New Kingdom period Sesostris was deified and worshipped as a god protecting Theban necropolis
Ammenemes IΙ, Amun-em-hat IΙ, ( = Ammon is the foremost ) son of Senweseret I, Αμμένεμις Β', o Φιλέμπορος, 1875 - 1840
During his reign he developed trade with neighboring countries, organized expeditions to Nubia and Punt. He also encouraged partnership with Asiatic countries.
Some punitive expeditions were also recorded at that time, expedition to Syria resulted in occupation of two fortified cities and more than 1500 captives were sent to Egypt.
They were next employed by building works at royal necropolis. To great extent the king reinforced independence of nomarchs, who were allowed to keep army of their own.
Burial place - white pyramid at Dahshur built of white limestone from Tura is now greatly damaged and poorly explored. There is a limestone sarcophagus in funerary chamber.
Sesostris II, Sen-weseret II , ( = Man Of [Goddess] Wosret), son of Amun-emhet II, Σέσωστρις Β', ο Συνετός, 1842 - 1836
Turin Canon assigns 19 years of rule, although the lack of relics dated to the times before year 9 year of his rule lets us to verify this opinion.
To great degree he enforced the economy mainly thanks to the land drainage near Fayum.
It is known that he lead some military operations at Nubia where he started to build a stronghold at Mirgissa.
Similarly to predecessors, his funerary complex was located near el-Lahun, base of the pyramid is 107 m long, height - 48m, entrance hidden in the southern wall.
Funerary chamber were found: red granite sarcophagus, sacrificial table and gold uraeus from the king’s circlet.
Senweseret II was the father of Senweseret III and Senweseret-Seneb and princesses: Sathathor-Junat, Hatshepsut, Nofret, Itakait.
Sesostris III, Sen-weseret III, ( = Man Of [Goddess] Wosret), son of Senweseret II, Σέσωστρις Γ', ο Μέγας, 1836 - 1817
Very energetic and warlike ruler. He warred in Nubia and Asia, also in Libya.
He moved southern boundaries of Egypt as far as beyond the Second Cataract.
Turin Canon gives 30 years of rule while most historians (Schneider, Lerhnar, Bietak, Franke) assume 19 years.
Another group of scholars (Helck, Beckerath) believe that Sesostris III ruled much longer. Their hypothesis is based upon newly discovered (in 1994) at Abydos inscription from Senuseret’s cenotaph, which records events from 39 year of his rule.
A few campaigns in Nubia and at least one in Asia Minor prove his incredible military dispositions. Making a canal by the Third Cataract facilitated the Egyptian fleet access to Semna at the Second Cataract, where numerous fortresses were built.
Senuseret left after him many temples at Armant, Medamud, Abydos, Faiyum, Bubastis.
His burial place including also his royal wife Sebekshedti-Neferu and children – pyramid complex at Dahshur patterned on Djoser’s complex. No stone at the core (mudbrick covered with limestone from Tura) resulted in vast damage of the edifice.
Since New Kingdom Senweseret was worshipped, especially at Nubia.
He was the hero of ancient story, a king-warrior and predecessor of the greatest conquerors – Tuthmosis III, Ramesses II and Alexander the Great.
Ammenemes IΙΙ, Amun-em-hat IΙΙ , ( = Ammon is the foremost ), son of Senweseret III and queen Sebekshedti-Neferu, Αμμένεμις Γ', ο Κτίστης, 1817 - 1772
Great builder and organizer.
He farmed the Faiyum Oasis and Lake of Moeris erecting at el-Lahun a dam.
Near Dahshur he erected his first pyramid, with burial places of royal wives and daughters around it.
At city of Hawara he ordered to build second pyramid and gorgeous mortuary temple, called later by Greeks the Labyrinth.
At the Hawara pyramid, a putative burial place of Amenemhat , burial chamber was hollowed out in huge quartzite block, weighing 110 tons.
This magnificent funerary complex is sometimes recognized as a legendary Labyrinth, has been partly damaged yet during the dynasty XIII and since then has been undergoing successive erosion.
Amenemhat exploited turquoise mines in Sinai and quarries at wadi Hammamat, Tura, Toshka, Wadi el-Hudi. He sent war campaigns to Nubia and erected fortresses.
Apart from funerary complexes at Dahshur and Hawara he built at Biahmu (colossal statues), Medinet Maadi (Temple of Renenutet and Sobek) , temple of Sobek at Crocodilopolis, temple of Harsafes at Ehnasija el-Medina and at Bubastis, Memphis, Abydos, Kuban. The king was still worshipped as Lameres in Roman period.
Turin Canon gives 40 years of rule.
Ammenemes IV, Amun-em-hat IV, ( = Ammon is the foremost ), son of Amun-emhet III, (or his grand-son) Αμμένεμις Δ', ο Φιλάδελφος, 1773 - 1763
He succeeded the throne after long lasting reign of his father, being himself, at that time, rather aged. From his reign the Egyptian empire slowly comes into disorder.
Four expeditions to Sinai for building purposes are recorded.
Traces of building activities of Amenemhat IV are found also at Crocodilopolis, Heliopolis, Medinet Maadi, Semna in Nubia.
Having no male successor he left the throne to his sister – wife, Sobekneferure.
Presumably pyramid at Mazguna (between Memphis and Fayum) was his burial place.
Turin Canon gives 9 years, 3 months and 27 days of rule.
Scemiomphris, Sobek-neferu-Re, ( = Sobek is the beauty of Ra), dgt of Amun-emhet III, wif of Ammenemes IV, Σκεμίοφρις , *Σοβoνέφρερις, η Φιλάδελφος, 1763 - 1759
Turin Canon assigns 3 years, 10 months and 24 days of rule, while Manethon – 4 years.
She was younger sister (and wife) of Amenemhat IV, presumably daughter of Amenemhat III. Statues of Tell ed-Daba and architrave of Herakleopolis are preserved.
Inscription on the nilometer at Nubian Semna records 3 years of her rule.
Building of pyramid at Mazghuna has not been completed, and probably never used, only its underground part was finished.
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Πρέπει να λάβετε υπ' όψη ότι
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αν διαφωνείτε με όσα αναγράφονται σε αυτήν
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