XIII Αιγυπτιακή Δυναστεία
| της Αιγύπτου
|13η Δυναστεία XIII|
There are many known rulers for the Thirteenth Dynasty. Some of the better known ones are listed below:
|Throne Name||Dates||Royal Name Meaning||Burial|
|Βέγαφις (Wegaf Khutawyre]]||1790-1786||"Re Protects the Two Lands"||Unknown|
|Ameny Intef IV (Αμμένεμις E' (Amenemhet V) Sankhibre||c. 1770||"The Heart of Re Lives"||Unknown|
|Hor Auyibre||c. 1770||"Re Succours the Heart"||Dahshur near the pyramid of Amenemhet III|
|Sobekhotep II (Αμμένεμις Ζ' (Amenmehet VI)) Sekhemre Khutawy||c. 1760||"Powerful is Re, Protector of the Two Lands"||possibly Dahshur|
|Khendjer Userkare||c. 1747||"The Soul of Re is Powerful"||Pyramid, South Saqqara|
|Sobekhotep III Sekhemre Sewadjtawy||c. 1745||"Powerful is Re, He makes to Flourish the Two Lands"||Unknown|
|Neferhotep I Khasekhemre||1741-1730||"Powerful is the Soul of Re"||Unknown|
|Sobekhotep IV Khaneferre||1730-1720||"Beautiful is the Soul of Re"||Unknown|
|Ay Merneferre||c. 1720||"Beautiful is the Desire of Re"||Unknown|
|Neferhotep II Sekhemre Sankhtawy||Precise dates unknown||"Powerful is Re, Giver of Life to the Two Lands"||Unknown|
In later texts, this dynasty is usually described as an era of chaos and disorder. However, the period may have been more peaceful than was once thought since the central government in Itj-tawy near the Faiyum was sustained during most of the dynasty and the country remained relatively stable. Unfortunately, the true chronology of this dynasty is difficult to determine as there are few monuments dating from the period. Many of the kings' names are only known from an odd fragmentary inscription or from scarabs.
Merneferre Ay (also called Merneferre Ai) was the last king of the dynasty to be mentioned by name on monuments in Upper and Lower Egypt, with the eastern Delta breaking away under its own kings about the time of his death.
After allowing discipline at the southern forts to deteriorate, the government eventually withdrew its garrisons and, not long afterward, the forts were reoccupied by the rising Nubian state of Kush. In the north, parts of Lower Egypt became heavily settled by an immigrant Asiatic population. An independent line of kings created the Fourteenth Dynasty that arose in the western Delta during the later Thirteenth Dynasty. According to Manetho, into this unstable mix came invaders from the east called the Hyksos. Their regime, called the Fifteenth Dynasty, replaced the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties in most of the country.
DYNASTY XIIIa ( 13th )
1759 - 1624 Imperators (Αυτοκράτορες)
Dating by Franke A period of decay and disarray of the nationhood throughout which at least 5 “dynasties”, or rather “royal families” may be distinguished. They were ruling at different parts of the Upper Egypt. They “held reigns” usually ephemerally and concurrently with others. Below there are presented those of rulers who laid a claim to a royal titulary and of whom we are able to say anything. Some of the names are possibly different names of the same person
Sackhem-Neteru Wegaf son of Βέγαφις 1759 - 1757
The Turin Canon assigns to him two years, three months and twenty four days of rule
Ammenemes V > Amun-em-hat V ( = Ammon is the foremost ) or Sen-buf son of Αμμένεμις E΄ 1757 - 1754
Turin Canon gives 3 years of rule.
Some relics were found as: stone blocks of Tod, a seal, scarab, inscriptions from Semna and Aksut, statue of the temple on Elephantine.
Sekhem-Re ( = Powerful is Ra) or Khutowy ( = Protector of the Two Lands) son of Σέκεμρις ή Κύτοβις 1754 - 1748
Turin Canon mentions 6 years of rule. His existence is also proved by papyri of Illahun and Nilometer of Semna in Nubia, as well as royal plate of Karnak and artifacts of Bubastis, Uronarti and Kerma
Ammenemes VI > Amun-em-hat VI ( = Ammon is the foremost ) son of Αμμένεμις ΣΤ΄ 1748 - 1745
Detlef Franke is questioning the existence of Amenemhat. In his opinion second and fourth ruler of this dynasty are the same person, reigning ca. 1750 BC.
Sehetep-ib-Re son of *Σέχτεβρις 1745 - 1744
The ruler authenticated by cylindical seal, and on, recently, discovered fragment of stele of galenite mine in Gebel Zeit at Red Sea.
Iufe-ni ( = he belongs to me) son of *Ίωφνις 1744 - 1743
This king is confirmed only by Turin Canon
Ammenemes VII > Amun-em-hat VII ( = Ammon is the foremost ) Ameny the Asiatic son of Αμμένεμις Ζ΄ ο Ασιατικός 1743 - 1740
Turin Canon and Table of Karnak give evidence to this ruler. His name was inscribed also on stone block from architrave at Heliopolis and cylindrical seals.
Neb-nun ( = [my] lord is Nun ) or Semen-ka-Re ( = ka is the strengthened power of Ra) son of Νεβνών 1740 - 1739
Throne name (Semen-ka-Re) of this ruler is known of Turin Canon. In faience stela of temple of Gebel Zeit discovered in 1984 is disclosed birth name Neb-nun, which indicates that this ruler used galenite mines in Eastern Mountains.
> Hor-nedj-her-iοtef ( = Horus protects his father) son of *Ωρονέζερτις ο Ασιατικός the Asiatic 1739 - 1737
A ruler presumably of Asiatic origin. His name is recorded in Turin Canon. Only remains of his palace at Tell el-Daba remained to date. To this king is ascribed also a scarab found at Jerycho.
unknown Horus name Suadj-ka-Re (I) ( = Ra of refreshing ka) son of *Σαύδιχρις 1737 - 1736
Nedjem-ib-Re ( = pleasant is the hart of Ra) son of *Νεδέμιβρις 1736 - 1735
Name, of this ruler, mentioned solely in Turin canon.
Sobek-hotep I ( = Sobek is pleased) or Khai-ankh-Re ( = living incarnation of Ra)
*Σόβωφις Α΄ 1735 - 1733
Turin Canon mentions birth name of this king - sbk-ra-Htp(w) –.
The ruler is also mentioned in Royal Table of Karnak.
On stela of Abydos is preserved his Horus name>
unknown Horus name Reni-seneb ( = my name is healthy) son of *Ρενίσνεβις 1733 - 1732
His name appears only in Turin Canon with notion that this king ruled 4 months.
Hor I son of Χώρ Α΄ 1732 - 1726
With no doubt this king was fond of person of Amenemhat III. This is confirmed both by Hor’s canopic jars sealed with the name of Amenemhat and incredible care he put to burial place of this great pharaoh. Hor ordered to renovate the pyramid of Amenemhat III at Dahshur. Himself he wanted to be buried in unused shaft tomb in northern site of this pyramid. This tomb was discovered in 1894 by J. de Morgan and yielded remains of burial and funerary equipment.
Ammenemes VIII > Amun-em-hat VIII ( = Ammon is the foremost ) son of Αμμένεμις Η΄ 1726 - 1720
The ruler mentioned on basis of the monument sacred to god Montu, on cylindrical seals, scarab and graffito in pyramid of queen Chuit at Sakkara.
Ammenemes IX > Amun-em-hat IX ( = Ammon is the foremost ) or Sebekhotep II son of Amenemhat VIII and queen Nubhetepti Αμμένεμις Θ΄ ή *Σόβωφις Β΄ 1720 - 1714
He carried double name of Amenemhat-Sebekhotep. According to J. von Beckerath who assigns to this ruler the Bulak papyrus 18, he used to rule at least 3 years. Based on Brooklyn Papyrus 35.1446, S. Quirke extended this period by next two years. Traces of building activities of Sebekhotep II are found in Theban district, Gebelein and Kerma. D. Franke assigns to Sebekhotep a pyramid (Ai I ?) located south-east of Khendjer’s pyramid in Southern Sakkara.
Khendjer son of *Κήνσωρ 1714 - 1712
The existence of the pharaoh Khendjer is recorded on two papyri, of Brooklyn and Bulak-18. In the Turin Canon Khendjer is omitted. Burial place – pyramid at North Saqqara, primarily 37 m high, angle of slope 55 o, crowned with pyramidion of black granite, surrounded with outer and internal brick-wall. The complex consisted also of mortuary temple, north chapel and queen’s pyramid. Inside the pyramid there was a row of passages with uncommon system of blocades and arrangements securing the chamber which itself was hollowed out of a 60 t block of quartzite.
Imi-Re-meshaw son of Ιμιράμεσχις 1712 - 1709
He ruled presumably for 2-3 years.
J. von Beckerath suggests that name of the ruler which meant Commander of army was primarily a title adequate to his function and became his name at the moment of his taking the rule.
To the king are devoted to colossal sitting statues of Tanis (placed primarily at Memphis) and usurped later by Apopis.
- Endephis IV
> Intef IV son of Ένδεφις Δ΄ 1709 - 1708
Ruler whose name is mentioned in the Turyn Canon, statue of Medinet Maadi and scarabs.
Seth I son of Σέθις 1708 - 1707
Presumably he ruled very shortly. Inscription of the name remained only on a fragment of Turin Canon.
Ameni or Kemau
*Άμενις or *Κεμαίος
Remains of pyramid and sarcophagus belonging to this king were discovered in 1957 on the necropolis at Dahshur.
*Ίβις -=-- Aa-keni ( = the brave donkey) son of *Άοκνις 1707 - 1705
The name of this ruler, appears merely in genealogy of priests at Memphis. In Backerath opinion this name comes from Seth is Brave, and was altered to this form at the time of excommunication of the god Seth
Sobek-hotep IΙΙ ( = Sobek is pleased)
*Σόβωφις Γ΄ 1705 - 1703
The Turin Canon assigns to him one year, one month and two days of rule. Son of Mentuhotep and Juhetibu. Scarabs and inscriptions on the island Sekhel as well as inscriptions on rock near Hermonthis explain genealogy of Sebekhotep’s family. At the beginning of his rule he probably sent military expeditions to Asia. His building activity focused mainly around Theban district, Bubastis, Sekhel and Elephantine.
Nefer-hotep I son of *Νεφέρωφις Α΄ 1703 - 1691
Turin Canon gives him 11 years and 1 month of rule. Neferhotep was son of Haankhef, the high priest from Abydos, and Kemi. His two brothers, Sahathor and Sebekhotep IV, held rule immediately after him. Neferhotep resided at Ithi-tawi in Central Egypt. Traces of this pharaoh’s rule were found both at Byblos (Phoenicia), Aswan and Buhen in Nubia. Building activity was focused mainly near Fayum, Thebes, at Abydos and on Elephantine. Burial place of the ruler might have been pyramid at Mazghuna provided that it does not belong to Sebekhotep IV, as some scholars suggest
Sakhathor son of bhr of Nefer-hotep I *Σάχθωρ 1691 - 1689
Brother of Neferhotep I and Sebekhotep IV, ruling for a short time. Apart from Turin Canon, where data concerning period of Sebekhotep rule did not survive, his rule is documented in rock inscriptions of Sehel and Wadi Hammamat as well as two statues of a temple of Hekaib on Elephantine.
Sobek-hotep IV ( = Sobek is pleased )
bhr of Nefer-hotep I *Σόβωφις Δ΄ ο Ισχυρός 1689 - 1681
Stela of Edfu gives evidence of year 8 of Sebekhotep rule. He was brother of his immediate predecessors to the throne. The Royal List of Karnak places Sebekhotep immediately after Neferhotep I omitting short rule of Satathor. This ruler left numerous monuments all over Egypt giving evidence
of great significance and might of his rule; many statues of Sebekhotep are known.
Documented war campaign into Lower Nubia is a proof of rather offensive policy
at those times, however some scholars (W. Helck) suggest
that in times of Sebekhotep (or directly after they ended) there was a governmental breakdown leading to formation of few independent principalities. At the same time Hyksos might have come to the rule in Delta
Sobek-hotep V ( = Sobek is pleased) son of *Σόβωφις Ε΄ 1681 - 1676
Sebekhotep ruled 4 years, 8 months and 29 days as stated in Turin Canon. He is also mentioned on Royal Table from Karnak. We do not know any more traces of this ruler’s existence other than these two sources.
Iaib son of *Ίωβις 1676 - 1665
The Turin Canon assigns to him ten years, eight months and twenty eight days of rule. Name of this ruler (apart from Turin Canon) survived on scarabs, a seal and stele of Sahathor.
His wife was queen Khaesnebu.
Ai I son of *Αιών Α΄ 1665 - 1641
Turin canon assigns to him a rule of 23 years, 8 months and 28 days. Evidence of his rule is disclosed both by relics in South and North of the land, among others: pyramidion from his, located presumably at Saqqara, pyramid, door-frames and stone blocks of temple at Karnak and numerous scarabs.
Sobek-hotep VI ( = Sobek is pleased) son of *Σόβωφις ΣΤ΄ 1641 - 1638
Turin Canon ascribes him 2 years, 2 months and 9 days of rule. Ruler documented by Turin Canon, Royal Table, statue and stele from Karnak and stele from Abydos. Precise identity of Sebekhotep remains still controversial. D. Franke identifies him with king named Ani, the same name is regarded as ancestral name of Sebekhotep.
Ani son of Άνις
King mentioned on a scarab. D. Franke identifies him with Sobek-hotep VI.
Suadjetu son of *Σύθετις 1638 - 1635
King mentioned in Turin Canon and Royal plate of Karnak. Probably he ruled 3 years and 2 months.
Ined son of Ίνεθις -
The ruler mentioned in Turin Canon. His throne name means Beloved is rule of Re.
In J. von Beckerath and D. Franke opinionhe may be identified with Neferhotep II.
Nefer-hotep II or Meri-sekhem-Re ( = beloved is rule of Ra) son of *Νεφέρωφις Β΄ 1635 - 1632
Turin Canon assigned to him 3 years and 1 month of rule.
This name is identical with his predecessor’s name and
due to this fact J. von Beckerat assumed they were one person.
Hori son of Χόρις 1632 - 1631
The ruler mentioned solely in Turin Canon. According to this source he ruled no more than one year but A. Gardiner suggested 5 years.
Sobek-hotep VII ( = Sobek is pleased) son of *Σόβωφις Ζ΄ 1631 - 1627
Ruler decumented in Turin Canon (over 2 years of rule) (4 years?) and Karnak Royal Table and one of statues
son of Τουτιμαίος 1627 - 1624
Two rulers of the same name or one who changed titulary during his reign. Sometimes the ruler is identified with Tutimaios (of Manethon) under whom Egypt was probably attacked by Hyksos. In D. Franke opinion Didumes might have been the contemporary of Salitis, the first Hyksos ruler.
DYNASTY XIIIb ( 13th ) 1624 - 1582 Kings (Βασιλείς) Θήβα (Άνω Αίγυπτος μόνον)
Dating by ~Lehner
Ibi son of *Ibis (*Ίβις) ? - ?
Throne name of this ruler means “Re, [perfect] in Maat”. It is mentioned only in Turin Canon
Hor II son of Χωρ Β΄ ? - ?
It is mentioned in Turin Canon.
Se…-ka-Re son of *Sechris (*Σέχρις) ? - ?
It is mentioned in Turin Canon.
Seneb-miu son of *Senemis (*Σένεμις) ? ?
Ruler mentioned by Turin Canon, fragment of stele of Gebelein and various items from Gebelain and Deir el-Bahari
Sekhai-en-Re son of *Σέχνερις ? - ?
Ruler documented in Turin Canon (?) and remains of funerary temple of Mentuhotep II in Deir el-Bahari.
Mer-kheper-Re son of *Mercheperis (*Μερχέπερις) ? - ?
Regent named Of beloved form Re is mentioned in Turin Canon and a scarab of British Museum.
Meri-ka-Re son of *Merichris (*Μέριχρις) ? - ?
It is mentioned in Turin Canon.
Sen-weseret IV ( = Man Of [Goddess] Wosret) son of Sesostris IV (Σέσωστρις Δ΄) ? - ?
Ruler of unknown chronology, however he should be ascribed to this dynasty. His existence and titulary are confirmed by some artifacts – royal table of Karnak, statue and fragment of stele dated to first year of his rule.
Mentu-emsaf son of *Methesaphis (*Μεθέσαφις) ? ?
This ruler, whose throne name Dd-anx-ra means Eternal is life of Re and the birth name mnTw-m-sA.f – Monu protects him. Existence of Montuemsaf is confirmed by stele of Gebelein and a few scarabs
Nefer-hotep III ( = is pleased) son of *Nephrechris III (*Νέφρεχρις Γ΄) ? ?
King whose full titulary is known thanks to stele discovered in temple of Karnak. He is presented there as king-warrior who defends and saves a city of Thebes. For the first time, in Egyptian history, the blue crown is mentioned in the stele of Nefer-hotep.
Mentu-hotep V ( = Montu is pleased) son of Methesophis V (Μεθέσωφις Ε΄) ? ?
The ruler’s throne name was mri-anx-ra, Re is pleased with life. From his times remained only a statue of god Sobek, found at Karnak
Neru-ka-Re son of *Nerichris (*Νέριχρις) ? ?
Weser-Montu son of *Besremonthis (*Βεσρέμονθις) ? ?
> Sobek-hotep VIII ( = Sobek is pleased) son of *Sobophis VIII (*Σόβωφις Η΄) ? ?
Ruler documented by royal table from Karnak. Stele built in the third pylon in temple in Karnak mentions fourth year of his rule.
Ini son of *Inis (*Ίνις) ? ?
The ruler, whose throne name Of beloved dignity of Re , is known from the sitting statue devoted to Amun-re of Karnak.
Mentu-hotep VI ( = Montu is pleased) son of Methsophis VI (Μεθέσωφις ΣΤ΄) ? ?
Mentuhotep VI is known to us only from a fragment from mortuary temple of Mentuhotep Nebhepetre at Deir el-Bahari.
Sena-ib ( = he of mild heart) son of Snaivis (*Σνάϊβις) ? ?
This king is mentioned on stele of Abydos by a name snaa-ib and throne name mn-xaw-ra Of invariable incarnations of Re. At the stele the king is presented in blue crown in front of Horus-Min
Sobek-hotep IX ( = Sobek is pleased) son of *Sobephis IX (*Σόβεφις Θ΄) ? - ?
King that ruled at twilight of the dynasty, confirmed on three scarabs.
> Wepu-awet-em-saf son of *Bepitepsaphis (*Βεπιτέψαφις) ? - ?
H.N.: Meri-tawi son of *Meritavis (*Μερίταυις) ? - ?
Sobek-Ai son of *Sobecaion (*Σοβεκαιών) ? - ?
Kui-iker son of *Cycor (*Κύκωρ) ? - ?
The king’s existence is testified in Turin Canon and
architrave with his name found at Abydos by Sir W.F. Petrie
Αν και θα βρείτε εξακριβωμένες πληροφορίες
"Οι πληροφορίες αυτές μπορεί πρόσφατα
Πρέπει να λάβετε υπ' όψη ότι
- Μην κάνετε χρήση του περιεχομένου της παρούσας εγκυκλοπαίδειας
αν διαφωνείτε με όσα αναγράφονται σε αυτήν
- Όχι, στις διαφημίσεις που περιέχουν απαράδεκτο περιεχόμενο (άσεμνες εικόνες, ροζ αγγελίες κλπ.)