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XV Αιγυπτιακή Δυναστεία
| της Αιγύπτου
| 15η Δυναστεία XV
(1624 - 1514)
| Ονόματα Μανέθωνα
| Ονόματα Μανέθωνα
(Αφρικανός - Ευσέβιος)
Δυναστεία ( 15th ) 1624 - 1514
Μεγάλοι Υκσώς Imperators (Αυτοκράτορες)
Dating by Sitek
The Dynasty of so-called Great Hyksos, Bedouins who exploited general weakness of Egypt and invaded the Delta in XVIIIth century. These intruders seized mainly the eastern Delta where ca. 1730 BC they founded a city of Awaris.
Throughout the following century these tribes, being enhanced by continuous influx of Semite population, captured the Delta and part of the Upper Egypt start the rules of XV Dynasty at Awaris.
Mentioned by Manethon, the founder of dynasty of Great Hyksos.
According to Manetho Salitis conquered Egypt in times of pharaoh Tutimaios.
He resided at Memphis and built the fortress-city of Awaris.
Manethon ascribed to Salitis 19 years of rule.
He is used to be identified with ruler named SArk [SAlk] mentioned solely in genealogy of prophets of Memphis.
The throne name sxai.n-ra (the one intronized by Ra) used to be identified with Jakobaam of dynasty XVI, however J. von Beckerath attributes this name just to Salitis.
unknown Horus name, Shesi, or Bnon, son of, *Σέσις ( Βνών ]], ) 1604 - 1594
According to Manethon he ruled 44 years. Recently it is accepted that he ruled 3-14 years
unknown Horus name, Yacob-nar, or Apachnan, or Yacob-har, son of, Απαχνάν , 1594 - 1586
In J. von Beckerath opinion Yakobner and Apachnan from Manetho’s records were one and the same ruler.
Manethon’s Apachnan was supposed to rule 36 years and 7 months.
His throne name mri-wsr-ra is presented on scarabs.
unknown Horus name, Khian, Hqa-Khaswt “ = the ruler of foreign lands” , son of , Ιαννας 1586 - 1566
Manetho ascribes to him entirely too long period of 50 years of rule.
One of the so-called Great Hyksossos.
His name in north-western-semitic language means “Born in [month] Khiyar”.
Other known forms of his name : Khiyaran, Khajran, Khajan.
The title HqA-xAswt (hence Hyksos) means “the ruler of foreign lands” and is found on cylindrical seals and one scarab. A few exceptions of relics with his name are recently scattered all over the world – Bagdad, Knossos, Bogazkoy.
unknown Horus name, Apophi, son of, Άπωφις, (Αρχάης?), 1566 - 1526
In Manetho’s opinion (Flawius) Apopi ruled 36 years and 7 months.
Turin Canon records a span of 108 years of total rule for 6 kings of this dynasty.
Some scholars (Grimal) suggest two different rulers of the same name, however the prevalent opinion is that royal titulary had been changed during the long time of Pharaoh’s Apopi rule.
It is believed that this ruler, despite his Hyksos origin and warring with Theban princes, was to great extent “Egyptianized “, well educated and rather peacefully disposed.
He is mentioned on the Rhind and Saillier I papyri, as well as records of priesthood of Memphis and numerous relics of architecture.
There are known two sisters of the ruler, Tani and Tcharydjet and his daughter – Harta.
First years of his rule seem to bring peace with southern lands.
It was only under Sekenenre violent struggles begin, continued thereafter by Kamose.
The contemporary of king Ahmose, last of the Great Hyksos.
According to the Rhind papyrus in the year 11 of Chamudi’s rule (1515), Theban prince Ahmose captured Heliopolis and Sile.
In the next year (1514) Chamudi was supposed to render his capital of Awaris.
It is assumed that years 11/12 of Chamudis rule was 18/19 year of Ahmose’s rule.
In Manethon’s records his name is Assis (Aseth) and Archles.
Manethon decidedly overestimates duration of his rule, giving him 49 years and 2 months.
Recent evidence is that he ruled 10-11 years
The Hyksos kingdom was centered in the eastern Nile Delta and Middle Egypt and was limited in size, never extending south into Upper Egypt, which was under control by Theban-based rulers. Hyksos relations with the south seem to have been mainly of a commercial nature, although Theban princes appear to have recognized the Hyksos rulers and may possibly have provided them with tribute for a period. The Hyksos Fifteenth Dynasty rulers established their capital and seat of government at Memphis and their summer residence at Avaris.
The known rulers for the Hyksos 15th dynasty are:
|Σάλιτις ( Salitis)||20 years, dates uncertain|
|Σακρικώρ ( Sakir-Har)||Named as an early Hyksos king on a door jamb found at Avaris. Regnal order uncertain.|
|Κύων ( Khyan)||c. 1620 BC|
|Άπωφις Α' ( Apepi Ι, Apophis I)||c. 1580 - ?|
|Άπωφις Β' ( Apepi ΙI, Apophis II)||c. ? - 1540 BC|
|Κάμωθις ( Khamudi)||1540 - 1534 BC|
The rule of these kings overlaps with that of the native-Egyptian pharaohs of the 16th and 17th dynasties of Egypt, better known as the Second Intermediate Period. The first pharaoh of the 18th dynasty, Ahmose I, finally expelled the Hyksos from their last holdout at Sharuhen in Gaza by the 16th year of his reign
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