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XIX Αιγυπτιακή Δυναστεία
| της Αιγύπτου
|19η Δυναστεία XIX|
Dating by Lehner
- DYNASTY XIX ( 19th )
- 1295 - 1186
- Former Ramessids (Πρώτοι Ραμσίδες)
- Imperators (Αυτοκράτορες)
- Θήβα / Πιραμεσσίς
When Horemheb, the last king of XVIII Dynasty, died, apparently childless, Paramessu succeeded him as Ramesses I. Paramessu's family came from Avaris, the former capital of the Hyksos, and the role of its local god Seth, who had retained strong connections with the Canaanite god Ba'al, appears to have been comparable with that of Horus of Hutnesu in Horemheb's career. The Ramessid royal family considered the god Seth to be their royal ancestor and a fragment of an obelisk, recently discovered on the seabed of the coast of Alexandria, shows Seti I as a sphinx with the head of the Seth-animal offering to Re-Atum. With Ramesses I began a new dynasty, although there is some evidence to suggest that the Ramessid pharaohs considered Horemheb as the true founder of the dynasty.
- Ra-mes-sisu I
(= born of Ra)
son of Swti (commander of royal archers) Rammeses I Ραμσής Α' (Ραμεσσής) ο Γέρων 1295 - 1294
Ramesisu = ra-msi-sw = Born Of Re
Men-pehti-Re = mn-pHti-ra = Established by the Strength of Ra
Manethon (through Theophilus/Josepus) assigned to him a reign of 1 yer and 4 mnhs.
Manethon (through Africanus/Eusebius) assigned to him a reign of 1 yer.
Ramesses I ruled one year and 4 months, as co-regent with his son and successor, Seti I.
1315-1314 (Redford) 1308-1307 (Gardiner) 1307-1306 (Arnold) 1306-1304 (Hornung) 1305-1303 (O'Connor) 1304-1303 (Parker) 1298-1296 (Dodson) 1295-1294 (British Museum, Grimal, Málek, Shaw, Kitchen) 1293-1291 (Murnane, Wente) 1292-1290 (Krauss, Helck, von Beckerath) 1293-1291 (NarmerSite)
He held many weighty offices in army, he was later vizier and confidant of Horemhab, appointed by him as heir to the throne.
As a vizier he ordered to build for himself a tomb at Gurob (Fayum Oasis) where also Ramesses’ wife (or relative) was buried.
After he had been designated heir to the throne he built for himself a KV16 tomb in the Kings’ Valley.
The king’s mummy was found in Deir el-Bahari DB320 cache and now is a property of Atlanta Museum (USA) while fragment of his sarcophagus can be seen in Kairo Museum.
- Sety I ( = he of Seth ) son of Ra-mes-ses I
and Sat-Re (Sethos I) Σέθωσις Α ο Πολεμικός 1294 - 1279
Seti = sTXy = He Of Seth Meri-en-Ptah = mri.n-ptH = Beloved Of Ptah Men-maat-Re = mn-mAat-ra = Eternal Is The Justice Of Re
Manethon (through Theophilus) assigned to him a reign of 10 yers.
1314-1304 (Redford) 1308-1294 (Gardiner) 1306-1290 (Arnold) 1304-1290 (Hornung) 1303-1290 (Parker) 1296-1279 (Dodson) 1294-1279 (British Museum, Grimal, Málek, Shaw) 1291/89-1279 (Wente) 1290-1279 (Helck) 1290-1279/8 (von Beckerath) 1291-1279 (NarmerSite)
After coming to the rule he was forced to undertake series of war campaigns to Asia and Libya. He made wars with Hittites, conquered the land of Amurru and city of Kadesh. Νίκη κατά των Βεδουίνων Shutu και κατάληψη της Γάζας στην Παλαιστίνη. In his 8th regnal year he made war expedition to the land of Jam in Nubia (Sudan).
Burial place of the ruler became the finely decorated tomb KV17 in the Kings’ Valley. The king’s mummy was found in the Deir el-Bahari cache DB320.
History records of his warlike deeds add splendor to walls of many Egyptian temples. He erected magnificent temple at Abydos and a number of building structures all over Egypt, among others great hypostyle of the temple of Karnak, mortuary temples in Western Thebes and Memphis. He erected temple of Amen at Napata in Nubia, as well as in other cities. Many temples, destructed during Amarna period, were restored and covered with new reliefs and polychrome. He started building new capital of Ramessides in the Delta.
Ra-mes-sisu II (= born of Ra) or User-maat-Re or Setep-en-Re 2nd son of Sethos I and Tuja Rammeses II Ραμσής Β' ο Μέγας 1279 - 1213
Ra-mesi-su = ra-msi-sw = Born Of Re Meri-Amun = mri-imn = Beloved Of Amun Weser-maat-Re = wsr-mAat-ra = The Justice Of Re Is Powerful Setep-en-Re = stp.n-ra = Chosen Of Re Sisu = ss(i)-sw
Manethon (through Theophilus/Josepus) assigned to him a reign of 66 yers and 2 mnhs. Manethon (through Africanus/Eusebius) assigned to him a reign of 68 yers.
1304-1237 (Redford) 1294-1227 (Gardiner) 1290-1224 (Arnold, Hornung) 1290-1223 (Parker) 1279-1213 (Helck, Málek, von Beckerath, Shaw, Krauss, Kitchen) 1279-1212 (British Museum, Grimal, Dodson, Wente) 1279-1213 (NarmerSite)
Ramesses was named co-ruler with his father, Seti I, early in his life. He accompanied his father on numerous campaigns in Libya and Nubia. At the age of 22 Ramesses went on a campaign in Nubia with two of his own sons
Burial place of the ruler was tomb KV7, the one of most finely decorated tombs in the Kings’ Valley, unfortunately now is vastly damaged by water and mud. The king’s mummy primarily moved to tomb of Seti I was finally concealed in the Deir el-Bahari cache DB320 and discovered in 1871. In front of his own tomb Ramesses ordered to build huge tomb KV5, discovered in 1995 by K.R. Weeks. It was meant to serve as a collective tomb of numerous sons of Ramesses. Burial place of the king’s first wife, the queen Nefertari, became a tomb QV66 in the Queens’ Valley.
When Egypt's ships and northernmost towns suddenly found themselves under serious threat by pirates (Sherden), it was Ramesses II, while still co-regent in one of his earliest actions as a commander, who was placed in charge of their elimination. Posting soldiers and ships at strategic points along the coast, Ramesses II waited patiently until the Sherden appeared. He surprised and captured them, inducting many of their survivors into the Egyptian army.
Ο πρόωρος θάνατος του αδελφού του τον οδήγησε στον θρόνο.
He ascended to the throne at the age of 25 and in his 67 year reign he undertook an unparalleled building program - In his 4th regnal year, he made first military campaign into Syria which resulted in relieving of the principality of Amurru ruled by Betneshina - Μάχη της Κάδυτος κατά των Χετταίων υπό τον Μυβάτταλο (summer?) ( 5th regnal year (1275) Egyptian sources present the battle as a great triumph of Egyptian army and pharaoh Ramesses II in person, Hittite sources - in contrary. The fact that in consequence the land of Amurru had been annexed to Hittites’ influence zone allows us to conclude that closer to the truth are Hittite sources which record failure (if not complete defeat) of Egyptian army. - In his 21st regnal year (1258) he made a peace treaty with the Hittite king Hattusilis III . This treaty with Hittites warranted in writing non-aggression and mutual relieving of political refugees. This is an oldest known historical document made between two foreign countries. - Next over a dozen-or-so years Ramesses was making numerous war campaigns into Syria-Palestine, consolidating his own influence zone.
In 1245 and 1240 BC to the royal harem arrived two Hittite princesses thus consolidating the peace with the land of Hatti. There are known to us expeditions to land of Jam in Sudan in 21th regnal year and to Nubia in 44th regnal year, under command of Setau, the viceroy of Kush. Among Ramesses' wives were Nefer-tari (died in 24th regnal year), Istnofret (died in 34th regnal year), his two daughters, Binth-anath and Meryt-amun, and the Hittite princess, Maathor-nefru-re. Ramesses II reinforced fortresses in the Western Delta which protected from the “Sea people” attacks and Libyan tribes.
( = beloved of Ptah ) 13th son of Ra-messes II and queen Iset-nofret I Mernephthis (Μέρνεφθις) or Ammenephis Αμμένεφθις
or Amenophis (Αμένωφις) ο *Νικητής 1213 - 1204
Mery-en-Ptah = mri.n-ptH = Beloved Of Ptah
Hotep-her-maat = Htp-Hr-mAat = Joyous Is Truth
Ba-en-Re = bA-n-ra = Soul [Ba] Of Re
Meri-netje-ru = mri-nTrw = Beloved Of The Gods
Manethon (through Josepus, Theophilus) assigned to him a reign of 19 yers and 6 mnhs.
Manethon (through Africanus) assigned to him a reign of 19 (and 20) yers.
Manethon (through Eusebius) assigned to him a reign of 40 yers.
1237-1226 (Redford) 1224-1214 (Gardiner, Arnold) 1224-1204 (Hornung) 1223-1211 (Parker) 1213-1204 (Helck, Kitchen) 1213-1203 ( Málek, von Beckerath, Shaw, Krauss) 1212-1202 (British Museum, Grimal, Wente) 1212-1201 (Dodson) 1213 – 1202 (NarmerSite)
Burial place – tomb KV8 in the Kings’ Valley. His mummy was found in the KV35 tomb-cache of Amenhotep II.
This duration is entirely overestimated unless co-regency with Ramesses II is considered. He ruled as co-regent for 12 years, after holding an office of a general.
The thirteenth son of Ramesses II, his mother was queen Isetnofret I. The most significant event during Merenptah’s rule was repulse of Libyans’ and Sea Peoples’ attacks in his 5th regnal year (1208). Presumably he lead also victorious campaign into Asia as recorded in “stele of Israel”, the only preserved document confirming existence of this small tribe in Western Asia, both proudly and untruthfully described in Bible.
Building activity of Merenptah focused mainly in Western Thebes and Memphis from where mortuary temple erected of blocks gathered from pulled down Theban temple of Amenhothep III and palace and sacral complex devoted to Ptah and royal cult should be mentioned.
- Amun-mesi-su (= born of Ammon ) son of Amonmses (*Αμωνεμσής) or Ammenemnis (Αμμενέμνης ο *Σφετεριστής 1203 - 1200
Amen-mesi-su = imn-msi-sw = Born Of Amun
Heka-Waset = HqA-wAst = Lord Of Waset
Men-mi-Re = mn-mi-ra = Eternal Like Re
Setep-en-Re = stp.n-ra = Chosen Of Re
Setep-en-Amun = stp.n- imn = Chosen Of Amun
Manethon (through Africanus) assigned to him a reign of 5 yers.
1226-1221 (Redford) 1211-1206 (Parker) 1204-1200 (Hornung, Kitchen) 1203-1200 (British Museum, Helck, Málek, Krauss) 1203-1200/1199 (von Beckerath) 1202-1199 (Grimal, Wente) 1200-1196 (Dodson) 1200-1196 (NarmerSite)
Ruler, whose origin and genealogy are not thoroughly known. There is opinion that vice king of Kush under Merenptah, named Messui, and Merenptah are the same person, usurper who seized the rule illegally 4 years in times of Seti II. Other explanation is that Amenmose was a vizier of Merenptah, son of Takhat, the daughter of Ramesses II. One more theory claims that he was son of Merenptah and Tachat I. In Kitchen’s opinion Amenmose ruled also on the north.
Burial place – tomb KV10 in the Valley of the Kings, bearing traces of devastation from times (and order?) of Seti II, which after all suggests that Amenmose held the rule illegally.
- Sety II (= he of Seth ) son of Merne-ptah
and queen Iset-nofret (no certainty) Σέθωσις Β' 1204 - 1198
Weser-kheperu-Re = wsr-xprw-ra = Powerful Are The Manifestation Of Re
Setep-en-Re = stp.n-ra = Chosen Of Re
Seti = sTXy =He Of Seth
Meri-Amun = mri-imn = Beloved Of Amun Mery-en-Ptah = mri.n-ptH = Beloved Of Ptah
Manethon (through Josepus, Theophilus) assigned to him a reign of 10 yers. 1221-1215 (Redford) 1216-1210 (Cambridge Ancient History) 1214-1204 (Arnold) 1206-1200 (Parker) 1204-1198 (Helck) 1203-1200 (Krauss) 1202-1196 (Grimal) 1201-1195 (Dodson) 1200-1194 (British Museum, Málek, Shaw, Hornung, Kitchen) 1200/1199-1194/93 (von Beckerath, Wente) 1202-1195 (NarmerSite)
As suggest E.F. Wente and J.R. Harris, he was not related to the dynasty at all. Assuming that Amenmose was usurper we can conclude that Amenmose ruled over Thebais for some time under Seti II’s rule in Lower Egypt. It is no doubt however that Seti II ordered to remove decorations from Amenmose’s temple in the Valley of the Kings. Seti II founded a station for a barge on the courtyard in front of the pylon II at Karnak, and chapels of Theban triad – Amen, Mut and Chonsu.
He was buried on the day 11, month 3 of the peret season (winter) in tomb KV15 in the Kings’ Valley. The king’s mummy was moved to the tomb KV14 of Taweseret in her last year of reign and
after Sethnakht’s ascended a throne returned to its previous burial place.
Finally it was deposed in the KV35 tomb-cache of Amenhotep II.
- Siphthis > Si-Ptah (= son of Ptah ) son of Setau II and his Syrian concubine Σίφθις (= Πόλυβος ?) 1198 - 1193
Si-Ptah = sA-ptH = Son Of Ptah
Secha-en-Re = sxai.n-ra =
Meri-Amun = mri-imn =
Akh-en-Re = Ax-n-ra = Beautiful Of Re
Setep-en-Re = Chosen Of Re
Meri-en-Ptah = mri.n-ptH = Beloved Of Ptah
1215-1209 (Redford) 1204-1198 (Arnold) 1200-1194 (Parker) 1198-1193 (Helck) 1196-1190 (Grimal) 1195-1189 (Dodson) 1194-1188 (British, Museum, O'Connor, Málek, Shaw, Hornung, Kitchen) 1194/3-1186/5 (von Beckerath) 1193-1185 (Wente) 1195-1189 (NarmerSite)
He was changing his titulary while holding his rule. It should be assumed that he was merely in his 14 as he inherited the throne because he died aged 20 as revealed analysis of his mummy. In his behalf the rule was held by Taweseret, his step-mother. Another interesting figure of those times was chancellor Bay, usurping the right to the rule.
Tomb of Bay was found in the Valley of the Kings – KV13. Based upon the Harris’ papyrus Bay is usually identified with “the Syrian of Yarsu” and died presumably some time before Siptah. Burial place of Siptah – tomb KV47 on the Kings’ Valley. The king’s mummy was found in the Amenhotep II KV35 tomb-cache.
- Ta-weseret ( = mighty lady ) wife of Siptah Thuoris Θούωρις
(= Αλκάνδρα ?) 1198 - 1193 (as regent) & 1193 - 1190
Ta-weseret = tA-wsrt = Mighty Lady
Setep-en-Mut = stpt.n-mwt = Chosen Of Mut
Sat-Re = sAt-ra = Daughter Of Re
Merit-Amun = mri(t)-imn = Beloved Of Amun
1209-1201 (Redford) 1198-1196 (Arnold) 1196-1188 (Grimal) 1194-1192 (Parker) 1194-1186 (O'Connor) 1193-1190 (Helck, Krauss) 1189-1187 (Dodson) 1188-1187 (Kitchen) 1188-1186 (British Museum, Málek, Shaw, Hornung) 1186-1185 (von Beckerath) 1185-1184 (Wente)
Wife of Seti II, step-mother of Siptah. As Seti-Merenptah, the son of Taweseret and Seti II, who was the legal heir, died prematurely, the throne was passed to Taweseret’s minor stepson , Siptah. The queen held rule as regent in his behalf and after death of 20-years old king she overtook it also formally. She started even counting length of her reign including years of regency. That’s why Manetho ascribed to her 7 years of rule. The reason for decline of Taweseret’s rule was conflict with Sethnakht.
Κατά τον Ιώσηπο είχε εμπορική συναλλαγή με τον Μενέλαο (διαμέσου του Πόλυβου (πρωθυπουργού της?)
Burial place – tomb KV14 in Kings’ Valley.
The Pharaohs of the 19th Dynasty Edit
The Pharaohs of the 19th dynasty ruled for approximately one hundred and ten years: from c. 1292 to 1187 BC. Seti I's reign is today considered to be 11 years and not 15 years by both J. von Beckerath and Peter Brand who wrote a biography on this pharaoh's reign. Consequently it will be amended to 11 years or 1290-1279 BC. Therefore, Seti's father and predecessor would have ruled Egypt between 1292-1290 BC. Many of the pharaohs were buried in the Valley of the Kings in Thebes (designated KV). More information can be found on the Theban Mapping Project website.
|name of King||Horus (Throne) Name||date||Burial||Queen(s)|
|Ramesses I||Menpehtire||1292–1290 BC||KV16||Sitre|
|Seti I||Menmaetre||1290–1279 BC||KV17||(Mut-)Tuya|
|Ramesses II||Usermaatre Setepenre||1279–1213 BC||KV7|| Nefertari |
|Merneptah||Banenre||1213–1203 BC||KV8||Isetnofret II|
|Seti II||Userkheperure||1203–1197 BC||KV15|| Twosret |
|Siptah||Sekhaenre / Akheperre||1197–1191 BC||KV47|
|Queen Twosret||Sitre-Merenamun||1191–1189 BC||KV14|
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