XX Αιγυπτιακή Δυναστεία
| της Αιγύπτου
|20η Δυναστεία XX|
DYNASTY XX ( 20th ) 1190 - 1075 Posterior Rammesids (Μεταγενέστεροι Ραμσίδες) Imperators (Αυτοκράτορες) Πιραμμεσίς
Dating by Helck, Krauss How the XXth Dynasty gained power remains unclear. The only indications of the political events at this date derive from a stele erected on the island of Elephantine by its first ruler, Setkhnakht, and an account written down in the Great Harris Papyrus from the biggining of the reign of Ramesses IV. On the stele, Sethnakht relates how he expelled rebels who on their flight left behind the gold, silver, and copper they had stolen from Egypt and with which day had wanted to hire reinforcements among the Asiatics. The papyrus describes how a state of lawlessness and chaos had broken out in Egypt because of forces from 'outside'; after several years in which there was no one who ruled, a Syrian called Iarsu (a made-up name meaning 'one who made himself' ) seized power, and his confederates plundered the country; they treated the gods like ordinary human beings and no longer sacrificed in the temples. From these texts we may perhaps conclude that, after the death of Taweseret, Bay had tried to seize power and may even have succeeded for a brief time until he was expelled by Sethnakht.
Seth-nacht ( = Seth is victorious )
son of ? *Sethnachthis (*Σεθώναχθις) ο Ανατροπέας 1190 - 1187
Seth-nakht = stX-nxt(w) = Seth Is Victorious Merer-Amon-Re = mrr-imn = Beloved Of Amon-Re Weser-khau-Re = wsr-xaw-ra = Powerful Are The Manifestations Of Re Setep-en-Re = stp.n-ra = Chosen Of Re
1200-1198 (Drioton, Redford) 1196-1194 (Arnold) 1192-1190 (Parker) 1190-1187 (Helck, Krauss) 1188-1186 (Grimal) 1187-1185 (Dodson, Kitchen) 1186-1184 (Málek, Shaw, Hornung) 1186/85-1183/82 (von Beckerath) 1184-1182 (Wente) 1188-1186 (NarmerSite)
He accessed the throne after death of queen Taweseret. It was the time when anarchy has set in the land.
Sethnakht became famous for usurping numerous buildings erected by his predecessors.
Himself, presumably he founded two chapels at Deir el-Medina. He died short after he proclaimed himself king and restored order in Egypt.
He was buried in a tomb (also the usurped one) of queen Taweseret
– the tomb KV14 in the Valley of the Kings.
The king’s mummy was discovered in KV35 tomb-cache of Amenhotep II. Setnakht was father of Ramesses III.
Ra-mes-su III ( = born of Ra )
son of Seth-nacht and Teje-Mereniset Ramesses III (Ραμσής Γ΄ ) ο *Νικητής 1187 - 1156
Ra-mes-su = ra-msi-sw = Born Of Re Heka-Iunu = HqA-iwnw = Ruler Of Heliopolis Weser-maat-Re = wsr-mAat-ra = Powerful Is The Justice Of Re Meri-Amun = mri-imn = Beloved Of Amon
Great Harris Papyrus assigned to him a reign of 31 years and 41 days.
1198-1166 (Drioton, Redford) 1194-1163 (Arnold) 1190-1158 (Parker) 1187-1156 (Helck, Krauss) 1186-1154 (Grimal) 1185-1154 (Kitchen) 1185-1153 (Dodson) 1184-1153 (British Museum, Málek, Shaw, Hornung) 1183/82-1152/51 (von Beckerath) 1182-1151 (Gardiner, Wente) 1186-1154 (NarmerSite)
Primary burial place of the king was supposed to be a KV3 tomb in the Valley of the Kings, however works on it had been cancelled. Ultimately the pharaoh was buried in annexated tomb of Setnakht – the tomb KV11 in the Kings’ Valley, while the tomb KV3 was used for burial of one of Ramesses’ sons. The king’s mummy was found in the DB320 cache at Deir el-Bahari.
He had a number of wives, including Isis, Titi and Tiy, as well as a number of sons including the next three rulers of Egypt, Ramesses IV, V and VI. We only know of one possible daughter named Titi. Ramesses III's reign began quietly enough as he attempted to consolidate his empire begun by his father after problems arose in the late 19th Dynasty. Nubia seems at this time to have been nothing more than a subdued colony to the south. - In 5th year of his rule (1180), Egypt was attacked by Libyans for apparently the first time since Merenptah had to deal with them in the 19th Dynasty. The Libyan invasion forces included two other groups of people known as the Mshwesh and the Seped. Ramesses III easily dealt with this threat, annihilating many, and making slaves of the rest. Though the Libyan population of the western Delta continued to increase by peaceful infiltration (as they had actually done before the invasion), and would later form the basis for a line of kings that would ultimately rule Egypt, for a time at least, this firm action kept other enemies at bay. - In his 8th year of his rule (1177), Ramesses III had to contend with a force of such great magnitude, that it destroyed at least the Hittite empire, and devastated the entire region, though we really do not know of its source. We read that: "The foreign countries conspired in their islands, and the lands were dislodged and scattered in battle together; no land could stand before their arms: the land of the Hittites, Qode, Carchemesh, Arzawa and Cyprus were wasted, and they set up a camp in southern Syria. They desolated its people and made its land as if non-existent. They bore fore before them as they came forward towards Egypt." Indeed, Cyprus had been overwhelmed and its capital, Enkomi, ransacked. They destroyed the Hittite capital, Hattusas, as well as many other empires. They conquered Tarsus and then settled on the plains of Cilicia in northern Syria, razing Alalakh and Ugarit to the ground. This upheaval was caused by a group of people collectively known as the Sea People, who were displaced from their homes by events that are as of yet unknown to us. However, this apparently took place over an extended period of time, and involved massive numbers of humans, consisting of the Peleset (Philistines), Tjeker (Teucreans), Shekelesh (possibly Scoloteans), Weshesh (Besseans) and the Denyen or Dardany, who could have been the Danaans of Homer's Iliad.
The invasion of these people into various regions of the Middle East apparently came in waves, as a number of Ramesses III's predecessors (perhaps most notably Merenptah) had to deal with similar bands of people. Ramesses III had his fight against the Sea People documented on the outer wall of the Second Pylon, north side, of his mortuary temple at Medinet Habu. It is the longest hieroglyphic inscription known to us. On the outer north wall of the temple proper he had carved the illustrations of the battle. After having stayed for a time in Syria, the Sea People apparently traveled over land to the Egyptian border. This was not simply a military campaign. The Sea People had with them their women and children, together with their possessions piled high on ox-carts. They also employed a sea fleet that apparently stayed in tract with those on land. Their intention was to settle in Egypt. Ramesses reacted swiftly to this threat, and in doing so, saved Egypt from the fate that would befall other empires, at least for a while. He dispatched squads of soldiers at once to the eastern Egyptian frontier at Djahy (southern Palestine, perhaps the Egyptian garrison in the Gaza strip) with orders to stand firm at any cost until the main Egyptian army arrived. Once deployed, the Egyptian army then had little problem in slaying these enemies, as was depicted in the reliefs at Medinet Habu. However, there was still the sea fleet to consider. Egypt was never particularly known for their navy, which was made up principally of infantry, including archers, who were given special marine training. Yet they hated the sea, known as wdj wr, the "Great Green", as they called the Mediterranean. However, as the Sea Peoples' fleet headed for the mouth of one of the eastern arms of the Nile, they were indeed met by the Egyptian fleet. In an inspired tactical maneuver, the Egyptian fleet worked the Sea Peoples' boats towards shore, where land based Egyptian archers were waiting to pour volley after volley of arrows into the enemy ships, while the Egyptian marine archers, calmly standing on the decks of their ships, fired in unison. As the Egyptian ships threw grappling hooks into the Sea People's vessels, by the grace of the god Amun, the enemies fell dead into the water from the onslaught of the combined Egyptian forces. In fact, this victory provided considerable respect for the priesthood of Amun at Thebes. We have no documentation of any pursuit of the fleeing Sea People as they returned to the Levant, but it is reasonable that there was such a campaign. Hence, for some three years, all was well and Egypt was for the most part at peace. - During Ramesses III's 11th year as ruler (1174), after a gradual infiltration by immigrants into the area west of the Canopic arm of the Nile from Egypt's western border, the Libyans, together with the Meshwesh and five other tribes, launched another full scale invasion. Once again, Ramesses III countered the attack, crushing these opponents as well. Apparently some 2,000 of the enemy dead were left on the killing fields, while the captured leaders were executed. The booty of the enemy captured during the battle, consisting of cattle and other possession's were sent south to the treasury of Amun. The details of this battle are found on the inner, north wall of the First Pylon at Medinet Habu.
- During Ramesses III's 11th year as ruler (1174), after a gradual infiltration by immigrants into the area west of the Canopic arm of the Nile from Egypt's western border, the Libyans, together with the Meshwesh and five other tribes, launched another full scale invasion. Once again, Ramesses III countered the attack, crushing these opponents as well. Apparently some 2,000 of the enemy dead were left on the killing fields, while the captured leaders were executed. The booty of the enemy captured during the battle, consisting of cattle and other possession's were sent south to the treasury of Amun. The details of this battle are found on the inner, north wall of the First Pylon at Medinet Habu.
- There were apparently other campaigns during the reign of Ramesses III, as recorded on the walls of his mortuary temple, though some of these scenes are questionable. Many of these depictions record events that probably took place in bygone years, a common practice of many kings in order to elevate their reputations. In fact, some of these scenes from Medinet Habu clearly seem to be copies of earlier battles fought by his illustrious predecessor, Ramesses II. However, it does seem that there were some other minor conflicts, particularly from the desert around the latitude of Thebes, but these were rather minor in nature
- He made two successful campaigns in Asia where in both inland and naval battle near outlet of the South Delta he defeated invaders’ attack and thus saved Egypt from foreign rule. Captured invaders were included to Egyptian army, some of them founded in Asia the country of Philistines.
- In 32nd year of his rule a harem conspiracy was plotted to draw the king aside of the rule. His wife Tiy apparently wished for her son, called in this papyrus, Pentewere, to ascend to the throne of Egypt. The plot was discovered thank to legal heir – Ramesses IV. The guilty were sentenced to death or mutilation.
- Ramesses III established a number of foreign contacts for trade, most notably with its old trading partner, Punt. This may have been Egypt's first contact with that land since the famous ventures in the days of Hatshepsut of the 18th Dynasty. He also seems to have sent an expedition to Atika, where the copper mines of Timna were located.
The king is well known for his domestic building program, a consolidation of law and order (as well as a tree-planting program). The end of the 19th Dynasty saw considerable corruption and various abuses, and Ramesses III was forced to inspect and reorganize the various temples throughout the country. The Great Harris Papyrus provides that Ramesses III made huge donations of land to the most important temples in Thebes, Memphis and Heliopolis. In fact, by the end of his reign, a third of the cultivatable land belonged to the temples and of this, three quarters belonged to the temple of Amun at Thebes. Though Ramesses III's foremost construct was his mortuary temple at Medinet Habu, which was finished in about the 12th year of his reign, at Karnak he provided numerous relief decorations and two new, small temples including one dedicated to Khonsu, the moon god. Additional building work was carried out in a number of centers, including Piramesses (or Pi-Ramesses, modern Qantir), Athribis (Tell Atrib), Heliopolis, Memphis, Hermopolis (Ashmunein), Syut (Greek Lycopolis, modern Asyut), Abydos and Edfu.
For many generations, Egypt had two viziers, one governing Upper Egypt and anther official who oversaw Lower Egypt. Apparently there was a problem; perhaps even a rebellion involving the unnamed Lower Egyptian vizier and so Ramesses III unified this high office under a single person named To (Ta).
While we know that Ramesses III likely died during the trial of the harem conspirators, we really do not know how he died, though some scholars believe it was at the hands of the conspirators while others believe it was not related to the plot. Irregardless, his death signaled the coming end of the New Kingdom, and even the lofty position that Egypt held on the world stage. He was buried in a large tomb (KV11) in the Valley of the Kings on the West Bank at ancient Thebes (modern Luxor). His is most famous for having some secular scenes that were unusual among royal tombs, including a painting of two blind male harpists. Hence, though sometimes called "Bruce's Tomb after its discoverer, James Bruce in 1769, in literature it is more well known as "The Tomb of the Harper". Presumably, he was succeeded by his son, Ramesses IV in about the year 1151 BC.
Ra-mes-su IV ( = born of Ra ) son of Ramesses III and queen Iset Rammeses IV (Ραμσής Δ΄) ο Ειρηνικός 1156 - 1150
Ra-mes-su = ra-msi-sw =Born Of Re Heka-maat-Re = HqA-mAat-ra = Ruler Of Justice Of Re Meri-Amon = mri-imn = Beloved Of Amun
1166-1160 (Redford) 1163-1156 (Arnold) 1158-1152 (Parker) 1156-1150 (Helck, Krauss) 1154-1148 (Grimal, Kitchen) 1153-1147 (British Museum, Málek, Shaw) 1153-1146 (Dodson, Hornung)) 1152/51-1145/44 (von Beckerath) 1151-1145 (Wente) 1154-1147 (NarmerSite)
His definite standpoint against the harem plot by the end of his father’s rule assured him succession to the throne There are found numerous traces of works in quarries at Wadi Hammamat and mines in Sinai in his times.
Burial place of Ramesses was a tomb KV2 in the Kings’ Valley although, yet being a prince, he started building of a tomb in the Valley of the Queens – QV53. Ramesses died aged 50. Mummy of the king was discovered in the KV35 tomb-cache of Amenhotep II.
Ra-mes-su V ( = born of Ra )
son of king Ramesses IV and queen Tentipet Ramesses V (Ραμσής Ε΄) ο Νωθρός
1150 - 1145
Ra-mes-su = ra-msi-sw = Born Of Re Amun-her-khopshef = imn-[Hr-xpS.]f = Amon Is His Strength Arm Weser-maat-Re = wsr-mAat-ra = Powerful Is The Justice Of Re Sekheper-en-Re = sxpr.n-ra =
1160-1156 (Redford) 1156-1151 (Arnold) 1152-1148 (Parker) 1150-1145 (Helck, Krauss) 1148-1144 (Grimal, Kitchen) 1147-1143 (Málek, Shaw) 1145-1141 (Gardiner, Wente) 1145/44-1142/40 (von Beckerath) 1146-1142 (Hornung) 1146-1141 (Dodson) 1147-1142 (NarmerSite)
Son of Ramesses IV by queen Tentipet. Scanty artifacts survived from his times at Heliopolis, Karnak, Deir el-Bahari and Sinai. Most significant written document dated to that period is the Wilbour papyrus. This is one of most important sources of evidence concerning Egyptian economy at those times.
The king died of smallpox aged 30-odd Burial place – tomb KV9 in the Valley of the Kings, shared with Ramesses VI. The king’s mummy was discovered in the tomb-cache of Amenhotep II – KV35.
Ra-mes-su VI ( = born of Ra )
- son of king Ramesses III and queen Iset - brother of Ramesses IV Ramesses VI (Ραμσής ΣΤ΄) ο Ανίσχυρος 1145 - 1137
Ra-mes-su = ra-msi-sw =Born Of Re [It]-Amon-Netjer = [t]imn nTr- = Father Amun The God Heka-iunu = HqA-iwnw = Lord of Heliopolis Neb-maat-Re = nb-mAat-ra = Lord Of Justice Is Re Meri-Amun = mri-imn = Beloved Of Amun
1156-1149 (Redford) 1151-1143 (Arnold) 1148-1138 (Parker) 1145-1137 (Helck, Krauss) 1144-1136 (Grimal) 1143-1136 (British Museum, Málek, Shaw) 1142-1135 (Hornung) 1142/40-1134/32 (von Beckerath) 1141-1134 (Gardiner) 1141-1133 (Dodson, Wente) 1142-1134 (NarmerSite)
Son of Ramesses III by queen Iset, brother of Ramesses IV.
Apart from numerous monuments usurped by Ramesses, other artifacts are located at Memmphis (pylon and part of a colossal statue), Heliopolis, Karnak (stelae) and Sinai. Statues of Ramesses are found at Tanis, Bubastis, Koptos. Έχασε εδάφη στην Δυτική Αίγυπτο που κατελήφθηκαν από τους Λίβυες.
Burial place – finely decorated, shared with Ramesses V tomb KV9 in the Kings’ Valley. Mummy of the king was discovered in the KV35 tomb-cache of Amenhotep II.
Ra-mes-su VII ( = born of Ra )
son of king Ramesses VI and queen Nubchesbed. Ramesses VII (Ραμσής Ζ΄) ο Διαχειριστής 1137 - 1128
Ra-mes-su = ra-msi-sw =Born Of Re It-Amon-Netjer = it[.t]-imn- nTr- = Father Amun The God Heka-iunu = HqA-iwnw = Lord of Heliopolis Weser-[maat]-Re = wsr-[mAat]-ra = Powerful Is The Justice Of Re Setep-en-Re = stp.n-ra = Chosen Of Re Meri-Amun = mri-imn =Beloved Of Amun
1149-1141 (Redford) 1143-1136 (Arnold) 1138-1137 (Parker) 1137-1129 (Helck, Eyre) 1137-1128 (Krauss) 1136-1129 (British Museum, Málek, Shaw) 1136-1128 (Grimal) 1135-1129 (Hornung) 1134- ? (Gardiner) 1134/32-1126/23 (von Beckerath) 1133-1127 (Wente) 1133-1125 (Dodson) 1134-1126 (NarmerSite)
There are only few documents preserved from those times They are mainly administrative and economical records, e.g. settlings of accounts of expeditions for gold and galenite, anthems in favor of the king and documents of Deir el-Medina indicating symptoms of economical crisis such as price increase on cereals, dissolving of royal rule, tomb robberies at necropolis.
Burial place of the pharaoh: mere tomb KV1 in the Kings’ Valley.
Ra-mes-su VIII ( = born of Ra )
son of king Ramesses III and queen of unknown name Ramesses VIII (Ραμσής Η΄) ο Αφανής 1128 - 1126
Ra-mes-su = ra-msi-sw = Born Of Re Meri-Amun = mri-imn = Beloved Of Amun Seth-her-khopshef = stX-Hr-xpS.f = Seth Is His Strength Arm Weser-[maat]-Re = wsr[-mAat-]ra = owerful Is The Justice Of Re Akh-en-Amun = Ax-n-imn = Incarnation Of Amun
1141-1139 (Redford) 1137-1130 (Parker) 1136-1131 (Arnold) 1129-1127 (Hornung) 1129-1126 (British Museum, Málek, Shaw) 1128-1125 (Grimal) 1128 (Helck) 1128-1126 (Krauss) 1127-1126 (Wente) 1126/23-1125/21 (von Beckerath) 1125-1123 (Dodson)
This ruler is hardy known to us
Only a few small plaques with his name and inscription
in the list of princess from Medinet Habu survived until now.
Localization of his tomb is not known, neither mummy of the king nor any item of his funerary equipment had been preserved.
Ra-mes-su IX ( = born of Ra )
son of Presumably he was son of Montuherchopshaf, who in turn was son of Ramesses III by Takhat Ramesses IX (Ραμσής Θ΄) ο Αδιάφθορος 1126 - 1108
Ra-mes-su = ra-msi-sw = Born Of Re Kha-em-Waset = xai-m-wAst = Appearing In Thebes Meri-Amun = mri-imn = Beloved Of Amun Nefer-ka-Re = nfr-kA-ra =Beautiful Is The Soul [Ka] Of Re Setep-en-Re = stp.n-ra = Chosen Of Re
1139-1120 (Redford) 1134-1117 (Gardiner) 1134-1115 (Drioton) 1131-1112 (Arnold) 1130-1111 (Parker) 1127-1109 (Helck, Hornung) 1126-1108 (British Museum, Málek, Shaw, Wente, Krauss) 1125-1107 (Grimal) 1125/21-1107/03 (von Beckerath) 1123-1104 (Dodson) 1124-1105 (NarmerSite)
Descent of this ruler is not well established. Presumably, he was son of Montuherchopshaf, who, in turn, was son of Ramesses III by Takhat. However, E.F. Wente states that Ramesses IX was son of Ramesses VIII, while according to one of the K. Kitchen’s hypotheses his father was Ramesses VII. Duration of reign of Ramesses IX was famous for interrogations of tomb robbers in the Kings’ Valley and against bossing corruption of officials.
Burial place: tomb KV6 in the Valley of the Kings. Mummy of the king was discovered in the DB320 cache at Deir el-Bahari.
Ra-mes-su X ( = born of Ra )
son of ? Ramesses X Ραμσής Ι΄ ο Ασήμαντος 1108 - 1104
Ra-mes-su = ra-msi-sw = Born Of Re Amon-her-chopszef = imn-(Hr)-xpS.f = Amun Is His Strength Arm Meri-Amon = mri-imn = Beloved Of Amun Kheper-maat-Re = xpr-mAat-ra = The Justice Of Re Abides Setep-en-re = stp.n-ra = Chosen Of Re
1120-1111 (Redford) 1117-1114 (Gardiner) 1115-1112 (Drioton) 1112-1100 (Arnold) 1111-1102 (Parker) 1109-1105 (Helck) 1109-1099 (Hornung) 1108-1104 (Krauss) 1108-1099 (Lehner, Málek, Shaw) 1108-1098 (Wente) 1107-1098 (Grimal) 1107/03-1103/1099 (von Beckerath) 1104-1094 (Dodson) 1105-1101 (NarmerSite)
Nine years long reign assigned to this ruler by some scholars seems not very possible. The last known document evidencing rule of Ramesses X refers to year 3, as mentioned in records of necropolis of Deir el-Medina.
Burial place – tomb KV18 in the Valley of the Kings. Neither mummy nor any item from his funerary equipment has been found
Ra-mes-su XI ( = born of Ra )
son of king Ramesses X and queen Titi Ramesses XI Ραμσής ΙΑ΄ ο Ύστατος 1104 - 1075
Ra-mes-su = ra-msi-sw = Born Of Re Kha-em-Waset = xai-(m)-wAst = Appearing In Thebes Merer-Amun = mrr-imn = Netjer-heka-Iunu = nTr-HqA-iwnw = The God, Lord Of Heliopolis Men-maat-Re = mn-mAat-ra = The Justice Of Re Reamins Setep-en-Ptah = stp.n-ptH = Chosen Of Ptah
1114-1087 (Gardiner) 1112-1085 (Drioton) 1111-1081 (Redford) 1105-1076/70 (Helck) 1103/1099-1070/69 (von Beckerath) 1100-1070 (Arnold) 1099-1069 (British Museum, Málek, Shaw) 1098-1069 (Grimal) 1094-1064 (Dodson) 1101-1069 (NarmerSite)
Reign of Ramesses XI was marked by collapse of the national authority, economical crisis, robberies of the royal tombs, famine and, finally, civil war.
Ramesses XI was buried in the KV4 tomb in the Kings’ Valley
Into times of Ramesses XI fall controversial episode of expedition of Panehesi to the south,
aiming to put into order that part of the land.
Ambitions of the general Panehesi resulted in conflicts with Amenhotep, the high priest of Amen at Thebes. The civil war had begun. At Amenhotep’s request Ramesses XI had sent additional units of army commanded by Piankhi who drove Panechesi out of the land whilst Piankhi himself, followed by his son-in-law Herhor (maybe inversely…?) overtook a post of high priests still warring in Nubia for next 10. By the end of Ramesses rule Smendes reigned in the North (presumably he was vizier of that territory), Herhor rules at Thebaida and gives rise to a powerful and independent of the central rule at Tanis dynasty of High Priests of Theban Amen
Αν και θα βρείτε εξακριβωμένες πληροφορίες
"Οι πληροφορίες αυτές μπορεί πρόσφατα
Πρέπει να λάβετε υπ' όψη ότι
- Μην κάνετε χρήση του περιεχομένου της παρούσας εγκυκλοπαίδειας
αν διαφωνείτε με όσα αναγράφονται σε αυτήν
- Όχι, στις διαφημίσεις που περιέχουν απαράδεκτο περιεχόμενο (άσεμνες εικόνες, ροζ αγγελίες κλπ.)