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XXII Αιγυπτιακή Δυναστεία
| της Αιγύπτου
|22η Δυναστεία XXII|
945 - 730
Tanis (Τάνις), Bubastis (Βούβαστις), Herakleopolis
Dating by Sitek Dating of this dynasty, as well as the whole III IP, proposed by Prof. K. Kitchen seems to be the most reliable, although in light of D.A. Aston analyses, not completely convincing.
Generally the IX century BC is one of the less studied of all periods of Egyptian history. It seems to me that the recent state of knowledge, supported by dubious, often contradictory records, makes the precise presentation of political history of the III Intermediate Period impossible. The reason for free interpretation of facts is among other the partition of rule among a few, more or less, powerful political centers. Potent role play Thebes with the office of High Priest of Amen, held by high priests related to rulers of the dynasty XXII and often aspiring to rule all over the land.
Also in areas of Herakleopolis and Hermopolis in the Central Egypt there are princes holding independent rule and they happen to be nominated by legitimate pharaohs from Delta.
Sesonchis I > Sheshonq I lson of Psu-senne II Σέσωγχις Α΄ 945 - 924
Governor of Bubastis descending from Libyan immigrants.
The son of Nimlot and Tanetsepeh, he overtook the rule after Psusennes II death. He was energetic ruler who held control with support of army.
He settled Nimlot, one of his sons, at Herakleopolis to hold rule over Central Egypt in his behalf. Later he made his second son, Iuput, the high priest of Amen at Thebes, what actually meant re-unifying of the land. His daughter, Tashepen-bastet was married to the third prophet of Amen at Thebes. Also for other influential offices all over the land were nominated loyal to Sheshonq people, which efficiently removed eventual threat for royal power.
- He made war expeditions to Syria and Palestine, conquered Jerusalem and some other cities in 925 BC. Asiatic expedition of Sheshonq is object of few speculations among modern historians and “parahistorians” that hold Bible as the main source of information and thus warp completely history and chronology of ancient Egypt. Building activities during Sheshonq I rule focused mainly at Thebes, Memphis and in the Delta - at Bubastis, Tanis, Tell Ballala
> Nimlot (I)
son of Sheshonq I and Pentreshnes *Νίμλωθις c. 940
Local ruler at Herakleopolis. He reintroduced the custom of daily making offerings of bull in honor of god Harsafes
Osorcon I > Osorkon I son of Shoshenq I and Karoma I Οσορκών Α΄ 924 - 889
Relatively long reign of Osorkon is a period, if not of prosperity, then surely of economical stabilization. Many donations in behalf of temples of Amen, Re-Horachte, Hathor, Mut, Thot and Bastet are a good testimony for this. Building activities were run at Bubastis, Memphis, Atfih, el-Hibe and Abydos. Osorkon I was the father of king Takelot I and
high priests of Amen - Sheshonq II, Iuwlot and Smendes (III),
also Shapenupet I, the first of the dynastic divine adorers of Amen, women-priests holding unlimited rule at Thebes
Sesonchis II > Sheshonq II son of Osorkon I and Maatkare ( = daughter of Psusennes II) Σέσωγχις Β΄ 890 - 889
Step-brother of Takelot I and high priests: Iuwlot and Smendes. In 924 he was made by his father the high priest of Amon at Thebes and short before his death – nominated the coregent and since then his name was inscribed in royal cartouche with all titles due to the king of Lower and Upper Egypt. However Sheshonq died unexpectedly and was succeeded by his step-brother, Takelot I. Sheshonq was the father of high priest Harsiese.
He was buried in the antechamber of the Psusennes I tomb. His rich funerary equipment consists of gold funerary mask, silver sarcophagus, pectorals, amulets and other precious objects.
Tacelothis I > Takelot I son of Osorkon I and queen Tashedchonsu Τακέλωθις Α΄ 889 - 874
The less known pharaoh of this dynasty and whole III Intermediate Period. None of known to us relics can be ascribed to him. The only proof of his existence is genealogy by priest Pasenhor in the stela of Serapeum, dated to 37 year of Sheshonq V rule and testifying his reign and descent.
Osorcon II > Osorkon II son of Takelot I and queen Kapes Οσορκών Β΄ 874 - 850
Father of high priest Nimlot (II) and of king Takelot II. Osorkon built mainly at Tanis, where he extended the temple of Amen. At Bubastis he decorated temple of Bastet, he built also in other cities of Delta (Leontopolis, Pithom) and Memphis. His politic activities in Asia were focused on decreasing Asirian influences in Palestine. In the battle at Karkar in 853 BC army of Asiatic princes was supported by Egyptian contingent counting 1000 soldiers.
Osorkon was buried at Tanis in the complex of the temple of Amen (tomb V), discovered in 1939 by P. Montet.
Harsiese Ι >Hor-si-Aset ( = Horus, son of Isis)
son of Shoshenq II
*Άρσησις Α΄ 870 - 860
Osorkon II appointed him to the post of high priest of Amon at Thebes. Regarded as usurper because announced himself the pharaoh of Egypt under the reign of Libyan dynasty XXII and was supported by highly ranked Theban clans. Being de facto ruler of Egypt, Horsiese placed his son on the Theban throne as high priest of Amon.
Horsiese’s tomb is located in the temple complex at Medinet Habu. On his burial place only canopies, ushebti and skull of Horsiese with partly cicatrized hole at the head, which may be due to either trepanation or injury caused by weapon, have been preserved
Tacelothis II > Takelot II son of Osorkon II Τακέλωθις Β΄ 850 - 825
Ascribing this pharaoh to any dynasty is a reason for instant arguments among scholars. In K. Kitchen opinion he was the sixth ruler of dynasty XXII while D. Aston regards him as the first ruler of dynasty XXIII and inserts him before Padibastet I. Moreover, he might have been the father of Osorkon III. Other scholars (including K. Kitchen) do not agree with this view and regard Osorkon, the high priest of Amon at Thebes, as the son of Takelot II, however he would not have anything to do with king Osorkon III. Yet, D. Aston believes they were one person so that he identifies the high priest Osorkon with the king Osorkon III.
A few objects belonging to Takelot survived up to now, but there are no buildings erected by him. In K. Kitchen opinion, Takelot II was buried in antechamber of his father’s tomb, Osorkon III, however D. Aston point of view is different.
Shoshenq III son of Takelot II and Karoma III Σέσωγχις Γ΄ 825 - 773
For unknown reasons he accepted Padibastet I as equal to him king of Egypt, additionally there were rulers of both dynasties, XXII and XXIII, reigning in Central Egypt. Also in the Delta territorial split into many principalities became remarkable. From the 49 year of this pharaoh’s rule come records of a famine.
After long reign of Sheshonq remained numerous buildings in the Delta. In 1939 P. Montet discovered tomb (No. 5) of Sheshonq at Tanis.
Pimais > Pa-mai son of Sheshonq III and Tentamenopet bhr of Bakennefi ( = the prince and regent of Athribis and Heliopolis) *Πίμαϊς 773 - 767
A few relics are preserved only in the Delta. Group statue from Sais presents him in times before he came to the rule and names him “Governor of Libyans - Meshwesh”.
It is possible that he was buried in tomb II in royal necropolis at Tanis.
Shoshenq V son of Pimay Σέσωγχις E΄ 767 - 730
Son and successor of Pami, as disclosed by stela of Serapeum, dated to the year 11 of his rule. There is no consensus as to definite ascribing this ruler to dynasty XXII or XXIII. In D. Aston opinion he would be the fourth or fifth ruler of dynasty XXIII and predecessor of Padibastet II. While Sheshonq reigned in the south, rule at Thebes was held by dynasty XXIII and kings-high priests Osorkon III and Takelot III, as well as Iuput II at Leontopolis. It is possible that before Sheshonq seized rule after his father’s death, he might have been high priest of Amen at Tanis.
Osorkon IV son of Shoshenq V and queen Tadibastet II Οζορκών Δ΄ 730 - aft.716
Osorkon’s reign falls on a period when Egypt was ruled simultaneously by four dynasties. Thus, dynasty XXIII is represented by Iuput II and Sheshonq VI, XXIV dynasty at Sais is represented by Tefnakht and Bakenrenef, Kushite dynasty XXV – Piankhi and Shabaka. Short after Osorkon had ascended the throne, Egypt was conquered by Kushite king, Piankhi. End of the rule coincides with invasion of Asirians in Asia. In 716 Sargon II reaches as far as to el-Arish by the Palestine-Egyptian borders.
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