XXIII Αιγυπτιακή Δυναστεία
| της Αιγύπτου
|23η Δυναστεία XXIII|
( 825 - 715)
Tanis, Hermopolis, Herakleopolis, Leonthopolis (Λεοντόπολις), Thebes
Dating of this dynasty as well as the whole III Intermediate Period proposed by Prof. Kenneth Kitchen seems to be the most reliable. I present also sequence of rulers according to traditional chronology although D.A. Aston suggested very interesting hypothesis. In his opinion founder of this dynasty was Takelot II, who precedes Padibastet I, Iuput I, Osorkon III, Takelot III, Amonrud and Payeftjawembastet at the Theban throne, while Sheshonq IV is omitted in this list. Dynasty XXIII, like partly coexisting with it dynasty XXII, is not a well known part of Egyptian history. Splitting of the one central rule into few independent centers weakened the land and finally resulted in Kushite attack and increasing threat of Assyrians.
Pedubast I > Ba-ti-Bastet ( = wise one of Bastet) son of Πεδούβαστις Α΄ 825 - 795
Traditionally regarded as the founder of the dynasty although some scholars (D. Aston) place Padibastet between Takelot II and Iuput I. Possibly he was son of Takelot II and brother of Sheshonq III. Disclosed by inscription in the nilometer at Thebes and priestly annals of Karnak. In year 15 of his rule he made Iuput his co-regent. Other his sons were: Pediamon, appointed a priest at Thebes in year 7 of Padibastet rule and Pentiefankh, appointed a vizier in year 8
Iuput I son of Pedubast I *Ιώπαθις A΄ 797 - 785
In year 15 of Padibastet I rule he was assigned by his father a co-regent.
Nilometer at Karnak corroborates 2 year of his rule (co-regency).
Shoshenq IV son of Σέσωγχις Δ΄ 795 - 789
In K. Kitchen’s opinion he was husband of Karoma III Merimut, the mother of Osorkon III whose father might have been just Sheshonq IV. This opinion is not shared by other scholar arguing that this pharaoh should not be included in royal lists. The only proof of his existence is a short note in nilometer at Karnak.
Osorkon III son of Οζορκών Γ΄ ο Ηρακλής 789 - 759
Son of Karoma III Merimut and unknown pharaoh. It may be possible that his father was either Sheshonq IV (K. Kitchen) or according to D. Aston, Takelot II. Additionally D. Aston identifies king Osorkon III with high priest Osorkon, the son of Takelot II. In K. Kitchen’s opinion they both were not even brothers. Osorkon, who reigned at Leontopolis, appointed loyal people to offices of chief priest at Herakleopolis and governor of South. Also at Thebes he designated Takelot III, his son and co-regent, as high priest of Amen and daughter Shapenupet – Divine Adoratrice of Amen.
Takelot III son of Osorkon III and Tentsai Τακέλωθις Γ΄ 764 - 757
High priest of Amen at Thebes until ca. 775 BC, then co-regent of Osorkon III. He was also independent ruler at Leontopolis. He ordered to build temple of Osiris – Lord of Eternity at Karnak. Sons of Takelot III were high priests: Djedptahiefankh and Osorkon, his heir to the throne however was Amonrud, his younger brother.
Shapenupet I dgt of Osorkon III and Karaotet 754 - 714
He founded a famous line of Divine Adorers of Amen. At the moment of entering the oiffice she assumed the title of “The Lady of the Two Lands, Embodiment of the will of Amen, Shapenupet Meritmut”. Her rule held at Thebes equaled royal power. During the reign of her, Osorkon III and Takelot III was erected the temple of Osiris at Karnak. After the Kushite Piankhi had entered Thebes, Shapenupet adopted his daughter Amenardis, thus making her the heir to the Theban throne.
Rud-amun son of Osorkon III *Ροδαμών 757 - 754
Historians’ opinions vary widely as to length of rule of Amonrud due to interpretation of the famous graffito of Wadi Gasus which describes year 19 of his rule. One of Amonrud’s daughters, Irbastnubnefu, was married to prince Paieftchaumebast of Herakleopolis.
Iuput II son of *Ιώπαθις Β΄ 754 - 715
Ruler of Leontopolis in the Delta. Ally of Osorkon IV and Tefnakht against Kushite Piankhi. If the controversial graffito of Wadi Gasus mentioning year 19 of rule refers to Iuput (and not Amonrud) closer to the truth would be duration of Iuput II reign suggested by J. von Beckerath and F. Gomaà, as well as by K. Kitchen
Payeftjawembastet Pedubast II? son of Πεδούβαστις B΄ c.665
Ruled at Herakleopolis in opposition to other rulers of this dynasty as well as Saite dynasty XXIV. He was husband of Amonrud’s daughter, Irbastnubnefu. He protected Herakleopolis from attacks of Tefnakht of Sais but finally he accepted supremacy of the Kushite Piankhi.
Nimlot (III) son of Osorkon III (presumably) 754 - 724
He appointed by Osorkon III to the throne of Hermopolis. He was Tefnakht’s ally against Herakleopolitan principality and Kushite ruler Piankhi. After Hermopolis had been captured by Piankhi, Nimlot surrendered and became vassal of the Kushite. In the stele of Piankhi his name is inscribed with title of “king” and presented in the crown kheperesh and uraeus – insignia of royalty.
Djehutiemhat son of
Presumably he succeeded Nemlit to the throne at Hermopolis, he was in opposition to other rulers of this dynasty and to saite dynasty XXIV.
Sheshonq VI son of Σέσωγχις ΣΤ΄
Existence of this ruler is historically doubtful. The only proof is a bronze pendant with the name SS (Shesh), however it may be incorrectly inscribed name of Sheshonq III.
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