XXVI Αιγυπτιακή Δυναστεία
| της Αιγύπτου
|26η Δυναστεία XXVI|
The Saite or Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt was the last native dynasty to rule Egypt before the Persian conquest (although others followed), and had its capital at Sais. It is part of the Late Period.
This dynasty traced its origins to the Twenty-Fourth Dynasty. Psammetichus I was the great-grandson of Bakenrenef, and following the Assyrians invasions during the reigns of Taharqa and Tantamani, he was recognized as sole king over all of Egypt. While the Assyrian Empire was preoccupied with revolts and civil war over control of the throne, Psammetichus threw off his ties to the Assyrians, and formed alliances with Gyges, king of Lydia, and recruited mercenaries from Caria and Greece to resist Assyrian attacks.
With the sack of Nineveh in 612 BC and the fall of the Assyrian Empire, both Psammetichus and his successors attempted to reassert Egyptian power in the Near East, but were driven back by the Babylonians under Nebuchadrezzar II. With the help of Greek mercenaries, Apries was able to hold back Babylonian attempts to conquer Egypt, but it was the Persians who conquered Egypt, and their king Cambyses II carried Psammetichus III to Susa in chains.
|Νεκώς Α'||(Necho I)||672 - 664|
|Ψαμμήτιχος Α'||(Psammetichus I) (Wah-ib-re)||664 - 610|
|Νεκώς Β'||(Necho II) (Wehem-ib-re)||610 - 595|
|Ψαμμήτιχος Β'||(Psammetichus II) (Nefer-ib-re)||595 - 589|
|Απρίης||(Apries) (Haa-ib-re)||589 - 570|
|Άμωσις Β'||(Amasis II) (Khnem-ib-re)||570 - 526|
|Ψαμμήτιχος Γ'||(Psammetichus III) (Ankh-kaen-re)||526 - 525|
Sextus Julius Africanus states in his often accurate version of Manetho's Epitome that this dynasty was composed of a total of 9 kings beginning with a Stephinates (Tefnakht II) and ending with Psammetichus III.
Africanus also correctly notes that Psammetichus I and Necho I ruled Egypt for 54 and 8 years respectively.
DYNASTY XXVI ( 26η) 672 - 570 Imperators (Αυτοκράτορες) Σάϊς
Necho I son of Νεκώς Α' 672 - 664
Ασσυριακή κατάκτηση (671 - 663)
Psatmik I son of Necho I Ψαμμήτιχος Α΄ 664 - 610
Son of Nekau I the prince of Sais. He ruled in Athribis under Assyrian name Nebushezibanni. After retreat of Assyrians he overtook rule and with support from Ionian and Karyan mercenaries gained principality over princes of Delta. He reached with them as far as to Palestine and laid siege to Ashdod. He managed to annex Central Egypt which was administered by regents of Heracleopolis
- Padiiset and Sematauiefankh.
In 656 he overtook a rule also at Thebes and thank to diplomatic efforts gained for his daughter Nitocris a title of divine adoratrice of Amun which de facto gave him rule over Upper Egypt. Recently it has been assumed that Nitocris became the divine adorer of Amun greatly thanks to Sematauiefankh, the prince of Heracleopolis who gave military support to Psametik. Military activity of Psametik in later years focused mainly in Libya and Asia. In response to increasing power of Media and Babylon Psametik supported Assyria which was close to its downfall in battles in 616 and 610 BC. Building activity of this ruler is known from extending Serapeum in year 52 of his rule and numerous monuments mainly in the Delta. He died after long reign and was buried at Sais.
Necho II son of Psatmik I and queen Mehitenusekhet Νεκώς Β΄ 610 - 595
He supported Assyrians against Babylonia. In consequence of Syrian expedition commanded personally by Nekau in 609 BC king of Juda, Josiash had been defeated under Meggido. In his place Nekau put his son Joakhaz and subsequently – Joiakim, thus restoring Egyptian supremacy over Palestine. After being defeated by Babylonian army in renowned battle at Karkemish in 605 BC, army of Nekau II retreated to Egypt and it was only sudden death of Nabopolassar, the father of Nabukhodonosor, which saved Egypt from attack. In 601 BC Nekau repelled Babylanian attack and according to Herodotus, captured Gaza while pursuing the enemy. He created Egyptian fleet, built in his order by Corinthian craftsmen. He started building a canal to connect eastern arm of Nile (north of Bubastis) with Red Sea. The works had been completed under Darius the Great. It is believed that he organized trade expedition which for the first time in history circumnavigated Africa. This event has been questioned as historical fact and scarabs of Brussels documenting it have been probably modern forgery. Nakau II died in May 594 BC leaving the throne to his son, Psametik II.
Psatmik II son of Necho II and queen Khedebnetiretbinet Ψαμμήτιχος Β΄ 595 - 589
During short time of his reign he had lead expedition against Nubians as documented in stele inscriptions and by Herodotus. Results of this expedition are not clear to us. It is known that in one of the battles great number of Nubians was brought to death and 4200 of others were captured. It is not known whether the capital at Napata was conquered. Of Psametik period of rule survived numerous artifacts, he was decorating buildings with tiny architectonic accents, lot of edifices he erected himself, lot of them just usurped. He died in his way back from Phoenicia
Ankhnes-nefer-ib-Re dgt of Psametik II and Takhuit 595 - 525
Devine Adorer of Amen at Thebes, adopted by Nitokris, who preceded her on this function. She held her office until the time of overtaking the rule by Persians in 525 BC. There is a funerary chapel of Ankhnesneferibre in temple at Medinet Habu. She decorated also many buildings at Karnak
Aprie son of Psatmik II Απρίης 589 - 570
Energetic and brave ruler.
He warred with Phoenites, captured Sydon and for 13 years laid siege to Thyr. He supported Jewish uprising against Babylon which ended up with a conflict with Nabuchodonozor. In 586 BC Jerusalem had been captured by Babylonians. Under Apries the Jewish community on Elephantine arose. Due to revolt in his army in 569 BC he lost his function, captured by Amasis, next handed over to populace and strangled. Another version tells that Aproes was brought to death in march 22, 569 BC during the battle of Amasis army with Nabuchodonozor, where he supported probably Babylonians.
According to Herodotus, Apries was buried by Amasis in the temple-tombs at Sais.
Αν και θα βρείτε εξακριβωμένες πληροφορίες
"Οι πληροφορίες αυτές μπορεί πρόσφατα
Πρέπει να λάβετε υπ' όψη ότι
- Μην κάνετε χρήση του περιεχομένου της παρούσας εγκυκλοπαίδειας
αν διαφωνείτε με όσα αναγράφονται σε αυτήν
- Όχι, στις διαφημίσεις που περιέχουν απαράδεκτο περιεχόμενο (άσεμνες εικόνες, ροζ αγγελίες κλπ.)